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1 Margaret Canovan, Populism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981); Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History. (New York: Basic Books, 1995).

2 Lawrence Goodwyn, The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), p. vii.

3 Canovan, Populism, pp. 51, 294. Centrist/extremist theory was popularized by a series of books, including The New American Right, first published in 1955, later revised and expanded as: Daniel Bell, ed., The Radical Right: The New American Right-Expanded and Updated, (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964); and Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab, The Politics of Unreason: Right-Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970, (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1970), with a second edition appearing in 1978.

4 Canovan, Populism, p. 51.

5 Ibid., pp. 13, 128-138

6 Ibid., p. 289.

7 Ibid., p. 293.

8 Ibid., p. 294.

9 Kazin, The Populist Persuasion, pp. 10-11.

10 Canovan, Populism, pp. 293-295.

11 Matthew N. Lyons, working draft of chapter segment in Berlet & Lyons, Too Close for Comfort

12 Kazin, The Populist Persuasion, p. 284.

13 This list is a compilation of points made previously by Canovan and Kazin, as well as John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism 1860-1925 (New York: Atheneum, 1972); Richard Hofstadter, "The Paranoid Style in American Politics," in The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965); and David H. Bennett, The Party of Fear: The American Far Right from Nativism to the Militia Movement, (New York: Vintage Books, revised 1995, (1988)).

14 Gordon W. Allport, Nature of Prejudice, Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1954, pp. 410-424.

15 Matthew N. Lyons, working draft of chapter segment in Berlet & Lyons, Too Close for Comfort.

16 Canovan, Populism, p. 292.

17 Ibid., pp. 292-293.

18 Hans-Georg Betz, Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe, New York: St. Martins Press, 1994, pp. 106-108, 174; "America's New Populism," Business Week, cover story, March 13, 1995.

19 Matthew N. Lyons, working draft of chapter segment in Berlet & Lyons, Too Close for Comfort.

20 Lucy A. Williams, "The Right's Attack on Aid to Families with Dependent Children," The Public Eye, Vol. X, Nos. 3 & 4, Fall/Winter 1996, p. 18.

21 Jean V. Hardisty, "The Resurgent Right: Why Now?" The Public Eye, Fall/Winter 1995, pp. 1-13.

22 Betty Dobratz, and Stephanie Shanks-Meile, "The Contemporary Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party: A Comparison to American Populism at the Turn of the Century," Humanity and Society (1988), pp. 20-50.; Victor C. Ferkiss, "Populist Influences on American Fascism," Western Political Quarterly (1957), pp. 350-373.

23 Peter Fritzsche, Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany.(New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 149-150.

24 Ibid., pp. 230-236.

25 Ibid., pp. 233-235

26 Ibid., p. 234.

27 Umberto Eco, "Ur-Fascism" [Eternal Fascism], New York Review of Books, June 22, 1995.

28 Fritzsche, Rehearsals, p. 233.

29 Ibid., p. 235.

30 Matthew N. Lyons, working paper for Too Close for Comfort.

31 Kevin Phillips, "The Politics of Frustration," The New York Times Magazine, April 12, 1992, p. 38, 40-42.

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