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1 See the prescient article on "The Politics of Frustration" by conservative Republican analyst Kevin Phillips in The New York Times Magazine, April 12, 1992, pp. 38-42.

2 For a brilliant short essay on the rise of the Nouvelle Droit see "Pograms Begin in the Mind" by Wolfgang Haug, a transcribed lecture with a challenging introduction by Janet Biehl. Green Perspectives, May 1992, (P.O. Box 111, Burlington, Vermont 05402).

3 See magazines such as Scorpion or Third Way published in England.

4 For a lengthy discussion of scapegoating and witch hunts, see the September/October 1992 issue of The Humanist with a special section on "Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism," which includes the author's article on the far right's scapegoating of secular humanism.

5 Many of these conspiracy peddlers are promoted in the catalog from the California-based Prevailing Winds, and a spokesperson for Prevailing Winds complained in a letter to the Progressive that I had attacked John Judge as right wing. While I have criticized John Judge's lunatic and undocumented conspiracy theories as "sincerely motivated but misguided," and am deeply troubled by Judge's promotion of Fletcher Prouty, I have never called Prevailing Winds nor John Judge right-wing; nor did Toronto's NOW Magazine in their accurate and devastating article on Judge that quoted Jane Hunter and me as critics.

6 See generally Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973 (original edition 1951); Stephen L. Chorover, From Genesis to Genocide, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1980; Richard Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life, New York: Knopf, 1963; Hans Askenasy, Are We All Nazis? Secaucus, N.J.: Lyle Stuart, 1978.

7 For a deeper understanding of fascism and its use of scapegoating, see: A. J. Nichols, Weimar and the Rise of Hitler, (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979), Daniel Guerin, Fascism and Big Business, (New York: Monad Press/Pathfinder, 1973), James Joes, Fascism in the Contemporary World: Ideology, Evolution, Resurgence, (Boulder: Westview, 1978).

8 Peter Fritzsche, Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).

9 The author heard these arguments raised by audience members during speaking engagements in late 1991.

10 The most useful general sources of information on U.S. right-wing conspiracy theories and the basis for understanding the role of reductionism and scapegoating in these movements are: Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics, (New York: Knopf, 1965); George Johnson, Architects of Fear: Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia in American Politics, (Los Angeles: Tarcher/Houghton Mifflin, 1983); and Frank P. Mintz, The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture, (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985).

11 Holly Sklar's books and articles on Trilateralism avoids the conspiracism that infects much writing about this group

12 Roger Scruton, A Dictionary of Political Thought, London: The Macmillan Press, 1982, p. 169

13 Eustace Mullins, The Secret Holocaust, (Word of Christ Mission. undated).

14 One highly- condensed version of this paper, circulated briefly only on the Peacenet computer network, misidentified Fletcher Prouty as a CIA agent. The error was immediately corrected and in all other versions Mr. Prouty has been correctly identified as an Air Force officer tasked with assisting the CIA. The error resulted when I inadvertently sent an incorrect computer file to Peacenet. I apologize for the error. Mr. Prouty has cited this matter as proof that my research is unreliable. I disagree.

15 Mark Lane, Plausible Denial, (New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1991), p. 124.

16 Spotlight, January 25, 1988, p. 9.

17 Plausible Denial, p. 119.

18 Telephone interview with Fletcher Prouty, February 1992.

19 Telephone interview with Prouty.

20 Telephone interview with Skolnick.

21 The idea of a conspiracy of "Jewish international finance" was a pet theme of Hitler, and can be studied in Hitler's Mein Kampf simply by scanning the index of any edition. Arendt discusses the myth of the conspiratorial role of the Rothschild family as central to fascist theory in her work The Origins of Totalitarianism, again there are numerous index entries.

22 The author attended the meeting and has corroborated these assertions with other persons attending the meeting. The author also is aware that ethical problems are created by reporting even in broad summary the contents of a meeting of a legal team working on a lawsuit. This decision was made only after much thought, discussion, and a failed attempt to carry out private discussions to resolve some of these matters. These matters were first raised by the author internally to Christic staff and leadership in the summer of 1988. Other attempts were made by the author and other persons to have these criticisms dealt with between 1988 and 1990. A final private discussion in the summer of 1991 originally involved the author, Christic client Tony Avirgan, and Christic leadership. It was the Christic Institute's unilateral decision to discontinue that attempt to resolve as many issues as possible privately before the criticisms were made public. The issue is also timely because if Christic refuses to deal with criticism of some of its work in the case, and succeeds in placing the issue of the dismissal before the Supreme Court, the almost-inevitable refusal to reverse the trial judge's decision would take a bad ruling and certify it as the law of the land.

23 Interview with two former Christic staff who were eyewitnesses to several of these incidents.

24 A strident attack on Clark written by John Judis which appeared in the neo-conservative magazine New Republic, conflated Clark's work with the LaRouchites and his support for a variety of liberal and progressive issues. Rather than raising a principled criticism of Clark, the article was a vehicle for a denunciation of the left in general and its views on the Gulf War in particular.

25 Questioned about the obviously bigoted material circulated by his current publisher, Prouty refused to comment.

26 Hulet, Craig. The Secret U.S. Agenda in the Gulf War, (New Jersey: Open Magazine Pamphlet Series, 1991), pp. 8-10.

27 Report from Iron Mountain is to a large degree a veiled attack on Herman Kahn and the school of geo-political strategy that developed around him at the Hudson Institute, an ultra-conservative think tank. Several of the footnotes refer to Kahn and Hudson Institute studies i.e. Kahn: Section 1, footnote 4 (p. 103), Section 5, footnote 10 (p. 105), Section 8, footnote 1, (p. 108); and Hudson Institute: Section 8, footnote 3, (p. 109). Moreover, the overall philosophy adopted in the book is consistent with Hudson Institute study papers and Kahn's writings. (See Kahn's On Escalation and Thinking About the Unthinkable. Also of interest is the book by two former Hudson Institute analysts, Edmund Stillman and William Pfaff who later rejected that school of thought and wrote The Politics of Hysteria.

28 William R. Tucker, The Fascist Ego, (Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, 1975).

29 Background interview with activist in January, 1991.

30 Prouty says he was never asked to be on the board of advisers but refuses to ask that his name be removed from the published list.

31 Valentine, Paul, "Media Blacks Out Drug Story: `Bo' Gritz Charges Conspiracy" , The Spotlight, July 13, 1987, p. 1.

32 Front Man for Fascism: Bo Gritz and the Racist Populist Party, A Background Research Report. People Against Racist Terror, (P.O. Box 1990, Burbank, CA 91507), no date, (c. Nov. 1991).

33 Final Call, June 29, 1992.

34 UFO Magazine, Vol.7, No.4, (Summer) 1992, p. 27.

35 LaRouche sued NBC, including Lynch and correspondent Mark Nykanen; free-lancer Dennis King; this author; and the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith for defamation. A jury ruled that characterizing LaRouche as an anti-Semite, "small-time Hitler," cult-leader, and crook was not defamation.

36 This information is from three former associates of Ridgeway who asked not to be identified.

37 The boxes were purchased as scrap from a janitor by the author posing as a paper recycler after the LaRouchites were locked out of their Chicago office for non-payment of rent.

38 Persons who already are aware of the rules of logic and the fallacies of debate should feel free to skip this discussion, however many activists have indicated that they found it useful. It is not meant to be patronizing and is included because many of the issues discussed here come up in a later critique of specific propaganda techniques.

39 Telephone interview with Bernays.

40 The author has written a column on computer technology for the legal community for almost six years (first in the Chicago Lawyer and, when this was being written, in the Illinois Legal Times) and is familiar with case tracking software, both early versions and current versions. I base my opinion on representations made in court documents and newspaper accounts regarding Promis. I have tested Lotus Agenda based on copies given me by Lotus for review.

41 The following partial list was compiled by Margaret Quigley of Political Research Associates: "Bush Linked to Hostage Deal: Secret Meeting In Paris," Spotlight, May 20, 1991, p. 1. (Copyright Napa Sentinel, 1991, Exclusive to the Napa Sentinel, by Harry V. Martin.); "October Surprise Cover-Up Congress Doesn't Look Very Hard," Spotlight, June 17, 1991, p. 1. (Copyright Napa Sentinel, 1991, (Edited by Spotlight), by Harry V. Martin; "`October Surprise' Figure Has Intelligence Background," Spotlight, July 8, 1991, p. 10. [Box] {Following is another installment in the saga of Gunther Rusbacher (Spotlight, May 20, and subsequently), the man who connects the Reagan-Bush team to the delayed release of the American hostages in Iran in 1980. The Russbacher story is an exclusive of the Napa, California Sentinel.} Copyright Napa Sentinel, 1991, (Edited by Spotlight), by Harry V. Martin; Spotlight July 23, 1991, p. 10 "Reagan-Era Inslaw Scandal Refuses to Go Away." Copyright Napa Sentinel, 1991, (Edited by Spotlight), by Harry V. Martin; Spotlight July 29, 1991, p. 10. "California Investigation Exposes Inslaw Scandal." Copyright Napa Sentinel, 1991, (Edited by Spotlight), by Harry V. Martin. [Editors Note] {Napa Sentinel editor Harry V. Martin, who broke the story that has come to be known as the October Surprise, examines yet another Reagan/Bush scandal known as the Inslaw case, which focuses on corruption within bankruptcy courts and the Justice Department.}; Spotlight September 10, 1991, p. 7. "Inslaw Claims Another Victim." Copyright Napa Sentinel,1991, (Edited by Spotlight), by Harry V. Martin.

42 "The October Surprise: Enter the Press," Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 1992, and "October Surprise: Unger v. Weinberg," Letters, Columbia Journalism Review, May/June 1992).

43 Paul Rauber, "Tangled Webs." Express (Los Angeles, alternative weekly), Sticks & Stones, column, November 8, 1991, pp.2, 28. "Hulet manages to deliver this patent foolishness in a glib and convincing manner, which won him many converts among the politically unsophisticated," p. 2; "Hulet has also been featured on KPFA's own `Flashpoints' program, a production of the station's own conspiracy-czar Dennis Bernstein," p. 28. [In retrospect, this assessment seems a bit harsh].

44 Interview with David Barsamian.

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