Selected Bibliography on Apocalyptic Millennialism


See also the extensive bibliography by Ted Daniels, and other informative materials, at the website of the Center for Millennial Studies,, and

Tom McIver: The End of the World:
An Annotated Bibliography (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1999), and

Selections from the Apocalyptic Genre

PBS/Frontline's Apocalypse! Web Pages: End Times as Growth Industry

Understanding the potential for demonization and violence
sparked by the year 2000 and Y2K computer glitch

by Chip Berlet
Senior Analyst, Political Research Associates

revised 11/23/99

"New World Orders: Millennialism in the Western Hemisphere"

Fourth Annual Conference on Millennialism presented by the Center for Millennial Studies,
at Boston University, November 6-9, 1999

Attendees and others are urged to send additional cites to for an updated bibliography that will appear here.

This is an expanded version of a bibliography originally prepared for "Dances with Devils: How Apocalyptic and Millennialist Themes Influence Right Wing Scapegoating and Conspiracism," published in the Fall 1998 issue of The Public Eye magazine.

It can also be used to supplement and document the reports issued by the FBI and ADL.

See also the extensive bibliography by Ted Daniels, and other informative materials, at the website of the Center for Millennial Studies,, and Tom McIver: The End of the World: An Annotated Bibliography (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1999)

Richard Abanes, American Militias: Rebellion, Racism & Religion, (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996).

__________, End-Time Visions: The Road to Armageddon?, (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1998).

James A. Aho, This Thing of Darkness: A Sociology of the Enemy, (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1994).

__________, The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism, (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1990).

Gordon W. Allport, Nature of Prejudice, (Cambridge, MA: Addison–Wesley, 1954).

Amy Elizabeth Ansell, ed., Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and Politics, (New York: Westview, 1998).

Michael Barkun, Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement, (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1994).

Bruce Barron, Heaven on Earth? The Social and Political Agendas of Dominion Theology, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervon, 1992).

Chip Berlet, Y2K and Millennial Pinball, conference paper, Boston: Center for Millennial Studies, 1998). Online at

__________, Dances with Devils: How Apocalyptic and Millennialist Themes Influence Right Wing Scapegoating and Conspiracism, report, (Boston: Political Research Associates, 1998). Online at

Janet Biehl, "Militia Fever: The Fallacy of 'Neither Left nor Right,'" Green Perspectives, A Social Ecology Publication. No. 37: April 1996.

Michael Billig, "The Extreme Right: Continuities in Anti–Semitic Conspiracy Theory in Post–War Europe" in Eatwell and O’Sullivan.

Dallas A. Blanchard, The Anti–Abortion Movement and the Rise of the Religious Right, (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1994).

Carl Boggs, Social Movements and Political Power: Emerging Forms of Radicalism in the West, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986).

Brenda E. Brasher, Fundamentalism and Female Power, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1998).

Devin Burghart and Robert Crawford, Guns and Gavels: Common Law Courts, Militias & White Supremacy, (Portland, OR: Coalition for Human Dignity, 1996).

David H. Bennett, The Party of Fear: The American Far Right from Nativism to the Militia Movement, (New York: Vintage Books, revised 1995, {1988}).

Paul Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture, (Cambridge, MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 1992).

Gregory S. Camp, Selling Fear: Conspiracy Theories and End–Times Paranoia, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997).

Margaret Canovan, Populism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981).

Fred Clarkson, Eternal Hostility: The Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy, (Monroe, ME: Common Courage, 1997).

Robert G. Clouse, Robert N. Hosack, and Richard V. Pierard, The New Millennium Manual : A Once and Future Guide, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1999).

Norman Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993).

__________, Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, (London: Serif, 1996 {1967}).

__________, The Pursuit of the Millennium, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970 {1957}).

James Corcoran, Bitter Harvest: The Birth of Paramilitary Terrorism in the Heartland, (New York: Viking Penguin, 1995 (1990)).

Sally Covington, Moving a Public Policy Agenda: The Strategic Philanthropy of Conservative Foundations, (Washington, DC: National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy, 1997).

Robert Crawford, S. L. Gardiner, Jonathan Mozzochi, and R. L. Taylor, The Northwest Imperative: Documenting a Decade Of Hate, (Portland, OR: Coalition for Human Dignity, and, Seattle, WA: Northwest Coalition Against Malicious Harassment, 1994).

Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown, eds., Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972).

Ted Daniels, "Another Standoff: The Montana Freeman," Millennial Prophecy Report. (April 1996:1-4).

David Brion Davis, ed., The Fear of Conspiracy: Images of Un–American Subversion from the Revolution to the Present, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1971).

Jodi Dean, Aliens in America: Conspiracy Cultures from Outerspace to Cyberspace, (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1998).

Morris Dees and James Corcoran, Gathering Storm: America’s Militia Threat, (New York: HarperCollins, 1996).

Sara Diamond, Not by Politics Alone: The Enduring Influence of the Christian Right, (New York: Guilford, 1998).

__________, Roads to Dominion: Right–Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States, (New York: Guilford, 1995).

__________, Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right, (Boston: South End Press, 1989).

Betty A. Dobratz and Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile, "White Power, White Pride!" The White Separatist Movement in the United States, (New York, Twayne Publishers, 1997).

Joel Dyer, Harvest of Rage: Why Oklahoma City is Only the Beginning, (New York: Westview, 1997).

Roger Eatwell and Noel O’Sullivan, eds., The Nature of the Right: American and European Politics and Political Thought Since 1789, (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1989).

Raphael S. Ezekiel, The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo–Nazis and Klansmen, (New York: Viking, 1995).

Susan Faludi, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday, Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1992).

Michael P. Federici, The Challenge of Populism: The Rise of Right-Wing Democratism in Postwar America, (New York: Praeger, 1991).

Abby L. Ferber, White Man Falling: Race, Gender, and White Supremacy, (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998).

Richard K. Fenn, The End of Time: Religion, Ritual, and the Forging of the Soul, (Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1997).

Mark Fenster, Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture, (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1999).

Peter Fritzsche, Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).

Robert Fuller, Naming the Antichrist: The History of an American Obsession, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

James William Gibson, Warrior Dreams: Paramilitary Culture in Post Viet Nam America, (New York: Hill & Wang, 1994).

John C. Green, James L. Guth and Kevin Hill, Faith and Election: The Christian Right in Congressional Campaigns 1978–1988.

Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist’s Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown, (New York: Harmony Books,1997).

James L. Guth, ed., The Bully Pulpit : The Politics of Protestant Clergy, Studies in Government and Public Policy Series, (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1998).

Thomas Halpern and Brian Levin, The Limits of Dissent: The Constitutional Status of Armed Civilian Militias, (Amherst, MA: Aletheia Press, 1996).

Mark S. Hamm, Apocalypse in Oklahoma: Waco and Ruby Ridge Revenged, (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1997).

Jean Hardisty, Mobilizing Resentment: Conservative Resurgence from the John Birch Society to the Promise Keepers, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999).

Didi Herman, The Antigay Agenda: Orthodox Vision and the Christian Right, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997),

Jerome L. Himmelstein, To The Right: The Transformation of American Conservatism, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990).

Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics," in The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965).

George Johnson, Architects of Fear: Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia in American Politics (Los Angeles: Tarcher/Houghton Mifflin, 1983).

Daniel Junas, "Rise of the Citizen Militias: Angry White Guys with Guns." CovertAction Quarterly, (Spring 1995).

Jeffrey Kaplan, Radical Religion in America: Millenarian Movements from the Far Right to the Children of Noah, (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997).

Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History. (New York: Basic Books, 1995).

Linda Kintz, Between Jesus and the Market: The Emotions that Matter in Right-Wing America, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997).

__________, & Julia Lesage, eds., Culture, Media, and the Religious Right, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998).

Bert Klandermans, The Social Psychology of Protest, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997).

Joel Kovel, Red Hunting in the Promised Land: Anticommunism and the Making of America, (New York, Basic Books, 1994).

Philip Lamy, Millennium Rage: Survivalists, White Supremacists, and the Doomsday Prophecy, (New York: Plenum, 1996).

Richard Landes, "On Owls, Roosters, and Apocalyptic Time: A Historical Method for Reading a Refractory Documentation," (Union Seminary Quarterly Review, 49:1-2, 49-69; 1996).

Clarence Y. H. Lo and Michael Schwartz, eds., Social Policy and the Conservative Agenda, (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998).

Charles Mackay, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, (London: Richard Bentley, 1841) Republished, New York: Crown, 1980.

George Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism, (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991).

William Martin, With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America, (New York: Broadway Books, 1996).

Joe Maxwell, and Andrés Tapia, " Guns and Bibles: militia extremists blend God and country into a potent mixture." Christianity Today v39 n7, 19 June 1995.

Tom McIver: The End of the World: An Annotated Bibliography (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1999)

Scott McLemee, "Public Enemy." In These Times, 15 May 1995:14-19.

Albert J. Menendez, Visions of Reality: What Fundamentalist Schools Teach, (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1993).

Frank P. Mintz, The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985).

Patrick Minges, "Apocalypse Now! The Realized Eschatology of the ‘Christian Identity’ Movement," (Conference paper, American Academy of Religion, 1994).

David A. Neiwert, In God’s Country: The Patriot Movement and the Pacific Northwest, (Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press, 1999).

Lise Noël, Intolerance, A General Survey, (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994).

Stephen O’Leary, Arguing the Apocalypse: A Theory of Millennial Rhetoric, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).

Elaine Pagels, The Origin of Satan, (New York: Vintage, 1996).

Daniel Pipes, Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes and Where it Comes From, (New York: The Free Press, 1997).

__________, The Hidden Hand: Middle East Fears of Conspiracy, (New York: St. Martins, 1998).

Lee Quinby, Anti–Apocalypse: Exercise in Genealogical Criticism, (Minneapolis: Univ. of MN Press, 1994).

__________, Millennial Seduction: A Skeptic Confronts Apocalyptic Culture, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999).

Dick J. Reavis, The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995).

Leo P. Ribuffo, The Old Christian Right: The Protestant Hard Right from the Great Depression to the Cold War, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983).

James Ridgeway, Blood in the Face, (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1990).

Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer, eds., Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Robert S. Robins and Jerrold M. Post, M.D., Political Paranoia: The Psychopolitics of Hatred, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997).

Mary Rupert, "The Patriot Movement and the Roots of Fascism," in Susan Allen Nan, et. al. eds., Windows to Conflict Analysis and Resolution: Framing our Field, (Fairfax, VA: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, 1997).

Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, (New York: Random House, 1996).

Eli Sagan, The Honey and the Hemlock: Democracy and Paranoia in Ancient Athens and Modern America, (New York: Basic Books, 1991).

Kenneth Samples, Erwin de Castro, Richard Abanes, & Robert Lyle, Prophets of the Apocalypse: David Koresh & Other American Messiahs, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1994).

Tom Sine, Cease Fire: Searching for Sanity in America’s Culture Wars, (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1995).

Christian Smith, ed., Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism, (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Peter Stanford, The Devil: A Biography, (New York: Henry Holt, 1996).

Kenneth S. Stern, A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996).

Catherine McNicol Stock, Rural Radicals: Righteous Rage in the American Grain, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996).

Charles B. Strozier, Apocalypse: On the Psychology of Fundamentalism in America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994).

__________, and Michael Flynn, The Year 2000: Essays on the End, (New York: NYU Press, 1997).

James D. Tabor and Eugene V. Gallagher, Why Waco? Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).

Damian Thompson, The End Of Time. Faith And Fear In The Shadow Of The Millennium. (Great Britain: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1996).

Patricia A. Turner, I Heard it Through the Grapevine, Rumor in African-American Culture, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).

Jess Walter, Every Knee Shall Bow: The Truth and Tragedy of Ruby Ridge and the Randy Weaver Family, (New York: Regan Books, 1995).

Eric Ward, ed., Conspiracies: Real Grievances, Paranoia, and Mass Movements, (Seattle: Northwest Coalition Against Malicious Harassment [Peanut Butter Publishing], 1996).

__________, ed., The Second Revolution: States Rights’, Sovereignty, and Power of the County, (Seattle, Northwest Coalition Against Malicious Harassment [Peanut Butter Publishing], 1997).

Donald I. Warren, The Radical Center: Middle Americans and the Politics of Alienation, (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1976).

Robert Wistrich, Hitler’s Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy, New York: St. Martins, 1985)

Daniel Wojcik, The End of the World As We Know It : Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America, (New York: New York University Press, 1999)

Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, The Anatomy of Prejudices, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

Leonard Zeskind, The "Christian Identity" Movement, (Atlanta, GA: Center for Democratic Renewal/Division of Church and Society, National Council of Churches, 1987).

= = =

Additional material on related subjects by Chip Berlet

Chip Berlet, "Fearful Zealots: A Combustible Mixture," OpEd, The Boston Globe, 8/13/99, p. A23.

__________, and Matthew N. Lyons, "One Key to Litigating Against Government Prosecution of Dissidents: Understanding the Underlying Assumptions," Police Misconduct and Civil Rights Law Report, West Group, in two parts, Vol. 5, No. 13, January-February 1998, and Vol. 5, No. 14, March-April, 1998.

__________, "Mad as Hell: Right–Wing Populism, Fascism, and Apocalyptic Millennialism," paper presented at the 14th World Congress of Sociology (XIVe Congrès Mondial de Sociologie), International Sociological Association, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1998.

__________, "Who’s Mediating the Storm? Right–wing Alternative Information Networks," in Kintz and Lesage, 1998.

__________, "Following the Threads: A Work in Progress" in Amy Elizabeth Ansell, ed., Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and Politics, (New York: Westview, 1998).

__________, "Apocalypse Soon: Are You Targeted as an Agent of the Antichrist? As the Year 2000 Approaches, the List Grows…" The Boston Globe, 7/19/98, Focus Section, p. 1.

__________, "Three Models for Analyzing Conspiracist Mass Movements of the Right" in Ward, 1996.

__________, "The Violence of Right-Wing Populism," Peace Review, 7:3/4 (Journals Oxford, Ltd., 1995), 283-288.

__________, ed., Eyes Right! Challenging the Right Wing Backlash, (Boston: South End Press, 1995).

__________, and Matthew N. Lyons; "Militia Nation," The Progressive, June 1995, pp. 22-25.

__________, "Clinic Violence, The Religious Right, Scapegoating, Armed Militias, & the Freemason Conspiracy," The Body Politic, in two parts, Vol. 5, No. 2 February 1995, and Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1995.

Supplement to Dances with Devils


Online Articles:

Spotlight On

Browse Topics | Site Guide | Multimedia Bookstore | Magazine | Publications | Activists Resources

Political Research Associates

Copyright Information, Terms, and Conditions

Please read our Terms and Conditions for copyright information regarding downloading, copying, printing, and linking material on this site; our disclaimer about links present on this website; and our privacy policy.

Updates and Corrections