nancy and out-of-wedlock births. The Bush Adminis-
tration has sought a substantial increase in abstinence-only-
until-marriage funds during the welfare reauthorization
2Sharon Lerner, An Orgy of Abstinence: Federal Fund-
ing Pushes No-Sex Education Into the Mainstream,
VillageVoice, August 1-7, 2001. Available at http://www.
activists are so extreme that they advocate against mas-
turbation, a nearly universal human activity. The National
Abstinence Clearinghouses Abstinence Survival Kit
warns that sexual self-stimulation may eventually
leave the person unable to respond sexually to a real per-
son. Its the first sign of sexual addiction, warns Leslee
Unruh, the Clearinghouses president.
3Adam Sonfield and Rachel B. Gold, States' Implemen-
tation of the Section 510 Abstinence Education Program,
FY 1999,Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 33, no. 4
(July/August 2001), pp. 166-172. Available at
5Ibid, pp. 168-169.
6Mariella Baldo, et al., Does Sex Education Lead to Ear-
lier or Increased Sexual Activity in Youth? Paper presented
at the IXth Annual International Conference on AIDS
Berlin, (Geneva: World Health Organization), June 6-10,
7David Satcher, The Surgeon Generals Call to Action to Pro-
mote Sexual Health and Responsible Behavior (Washing-
ton, DC: Office of the United States Surgeon General,
2001), p. 11. Available at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/
8Martha Kempner, Controversy Over CDCs Research
to Classroom Project, SIECUS Report, vol. 29, no. 6
(2001), pp. 4-5.
9Ibid., p. 9.
10Ibid., p. 5.
11Ibid., pp. 5-6.
12Martha Kempner, State-Level Debates Over Absti-
nence-Only-Until-Marriage, SIECUS Report, vol. 29,
no. 6 (2001), p. 7.
13Kemper, Controversy, p. 13.
15Ibid, pp. 46-47.
16Ibid., p. 19.
17Patrick Buchanan, Syndicated column, June 23, 1983,
Cited in Sean Cahill and Erik Ludwig, Courting the Vote:
The 2000 Presidential Candidates Positions on Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Issues (New York:
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute,
1999), p. 21.
18Kempner, State-level, p. 18.
19Ibid., pp. 25-28.
20Ibid., p. 26.
21Ibid., p. 33.
22Ibid., p. 32.
23See Questions and Answers on Condom Effectiveness,
CDC Update (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control,
1997), and Philip Kestelman, and James Trussell, Effi-
cacy of the Simultaneous Use of Condoms and Spermi-
cide, Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 23, no. 5 (1991),
p. 227, both cited in Kempler, State-level, pp. 34-35.
24Kempler, State-level, p. 31.
25Sex Respect, cited in Kempler, State-level, p. 44.
26Kempler, State-level, p. 54.
28Sex Respect describes anal intercourse as unnatural
behavior. Of course, anal intercourse is a behavior
practiced by both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Ibid.,
29Ibid., pp. 46-47.
30Ibid., p. 47.
31Susan M. Blake, et al., Preventing Sexual Risk Behav-
iors Among Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Adolescents: The
Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools,
American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 6 (2001),
32As a result of such a law, teachers in Merrimack, NH,
declined to teach Shakespeares Twelfth Night because
a female character disguises herself as a man, and declined
to show a video about Walt Whitman that mentioned
that he loved men. See Mary Bonauto, Background
Information on No Promo Homo Policies (Washington,
DC: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Educators Network, Sep-
tember 16, 2002). Available at http://www.glsen.org/tem-
33Rafael Diaz and George Ayala, Social Discrimination and
Health: The Case of Latino Gay Men and HIV Risk
(New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force
Po l i c y
I n s t i t u t e ,
20 0 1 ) .
Av a i l a b l e
34See South Carolina Code Ann. 59-32-30(A)(5). Cited
in Human Rights Watch, Ignorance Only: HIV/AIDS,
Human Rights and Federally Funded Abstinence-Only
Programs in the United States; Texas: A Case Study, vol. 14,
no. 5 (September 2002), p. 35.
35See Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 15-1716. Cited in Ibid., p. 35.
36See Ala. Code 16-40A-2. Cited in Ibid., p. 35.
37See Texas Health and Safety Code 163.002(8). Cited in
Ibid., p. 35.
38Interview cited in Ibid., p. 36.
39Interview cited in Ibid., pp. 36-37.
40Interview cited in Ibid., p. 37.
41Richard Elovich, Beyond Condoms
How to Create
a Gay Mens Culture of Sexual Health, POZ (June 1999).
42National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, With CDC HIV
Infection Rates on the Rise, New NGLTF Report Exam-
ines Direct Impact of Discrimination on Latino Gay
Men, (Washington, DC: NGLTF, July 12, 2001).
Available at http://www.ngltf.org/news/release.cfm?relea-
43AIDS Action Council, Election 2000 Presidential Can-
didate Report, (August 1999). Available at
thia Dailard, Fueled by Campaign Promises, Drive
Intensifies to Boost Abstinence-Only Education Funds,
The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, vol. 3, no. 2 (April
2000). Available at http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/jour-
44David Broder, Bush Defends Gun Record, Pushes Teen
Abstinence, Washington Post, June 22, 1999, p. A4.
45Bush Promotes Abstinence for Teenagers, Associated
Press, June 22, 1999.
46Tina Hoff and Liberty Greene, Sex Education in Amer-
ica: A Series of National Surveys of Students, Parents,
Teachers, and Principals (Menlo Park, CA: Henry J.
Kaiser Family Foundation, 2000). Available at
The Public Eye
THE PUBLIC EYE
By Mitra Rastegar
Editorial Note: This article first appeared in Sojourner:
The Womens Forum (Boston, April 2002), pp. 7, 16.
Reprinted with the kind permission of the publisher.
re you worried about the destruction
of parks and forests in this country?
Do you fear rolling blackouts will become
a norm in the future? Are you concerned
about your childs overcrowded deterio-
rating school? Does the traffic congestion
and sprawl drive you crazy? Well, a num-
ber of organizations say they have discov-
ered the single most important step to
countering these problems: restricting
These groups go by names like
NumbersUSA, Negative Population
Growth, Carrying Capacity Network,
and Federation for American Immigration
Reform. They put out publications and
sponsor television commercials, radio spots
and billboard campaigns to warn of the
supposed consequences of the immigra-
tion-induced population explosion. They
speak before Congress and attempt to
affect the positions of mainstream envi-
Following a rich history of packaging
xenophobia in liberal garb, these organi-
zations seek to entice environmentalists and
others to their anti-immigrant positions.
A closer look at their analysis shows that
they are more interested in opposing immi-
gration than in protecting the environment.
They consistently scapegoat immigrants for
a whole range social, economic and envi-
ronmental ills, often changing their focus
Packaging Xenophobia in Liberal Garb: