Selected Timeline:

Amoss's "Leaderless Resistance,"
Beam's Revised Version, &
White Supemacist Insurgency in the U.S.

Amoss publishes cover story on Leaderless Resistance as technique for insurgency inside Soviet Bloc countries
Circa 1960
Flyers calling for formation of "Phantom Cells" are airdropped over Cuba
Amoss Dies
INFORM Republishes Amoss's Leaderless Resistance
Amoss' Leaderless Resistance republished
as 4-page handout
Amoss' Leaderless Resistance republished as
Appendix in book? Not verified.
Right-wing insurgent Richard Cotton publicizes idea of Leaderless Resistance and phantom cells.[1]
circa 1968
William Potter Gale creates the concept of the underground Posse Comitatus and begins to popularize it. The cell structure described can be a form of Leaderless Resistance
Mike Beach - circulates information on how to form a Posse Comitatus unit. Publication of ''Guide for Volunteer Christian Posses.''
William Potter Gale creates the group Posse Comitatus. The group consists of "loosely affiliated bands of armed anti-tax and Anti-Federal government vigilantes and survivalists" who believe "that all government power is rooted at the county, not Federal, level" [2].
Circa 1971
Posse Comitatus manifesto issued in booklet form.
Gale forms Committee of the States.
Arizona Patriots start forming Kingman Arizona cell.
February 1983
Posse Comitatus member Gordon Kahl murders two Federal Marshals in North Dakota.
May 1983
Louis Beam publishes his version of "Leaderless Resistance."
June 1983
Gordon Kahl dies in a shootout with Federal agents, becoming the movement's first martyr.
Summer 1983
Covenant, Sword, and Arm of the Lord starts plotting violent mayhem.
July 1983
Aryan Nations Congress.
August 1983
CSA affiliates try to arson gay-positive church.
August/September 1983
"Order" cell formed by members of various groups.
November 1983
CSA activists and Richard Wayne Snell stage attacks on a pawnshop owner they mistakenly thought to be Jewish.
December 1983-March 1984
Order cell stages Seattle area bank and armored car robberies.
February 1984 Jack Mohr of the Christian-Patriots Defense League suggests Leaderless Resistance to that group and the related Citizens Emergency Defense System.[1]
June 1984
Snell shoots Arizona state trooper.
June 1984
Order cell assassinates Denver liberal Jewish radio talk show host Alan Berg.
April 1985
Raid on the Covenant, Sword, and Arm of the Lord.
Beam is tried for sedition at Ft. Smith.
President George Bush gives "New World Order" speech.
February 1992
Beam republishes "Leaderless Resistance."
October 1992
Estes Park Meeting, Beam speech. [3]
April 1995
Snell executed, OKC bombing carried out by McVeigh and others in underground cell.

1. Martin Durham, 2007, White Rage: The Extreme Right and American Politics, New York: Routledge, pp, 103-110, 136.

2. Anti-Defamation League, "Poisoning the Web: Hatred Online. Identity Church Movement: Posse Comitatus," cited 8 February 2003, at

3. Beam: "My enemies, who are legion, claim that my speech "launched the militia movement" in this country. While this is hyperbole, as well as an obvious lie, the presentation did influence and inform those present as to what could be expected in the future."

Leaderless Counterterrorism Strategy:
The “War on Terror,” Civil Liberties, and Flawed Scholarship

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