1 This study is adapted from sections of the book by Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guilford, 2000). Portions of this study have appeared previously in Chip Berlet, "Three Models for Analyzing Conspiracist Mass Movements of the Right," in Eric Ward, ed., Conspiracies: Real Grievances, Paranoia, and Mass Movements, (Seattle: Northwest Coalition Against Malicious Harassment [Peanut Butter Publishing], 1996); ----, "Frank Donner: An Appreciation," CovertAction Quarterly, Summer 1995; ----, "Re-framing Dissent as Criminal Subversion," Covert Action Quarterly, Summer 1992, Number 41; ----, "Hunt for Red Menace: How Government Intelligence Agencies and Private Right-wing Countersubversion Groups Forge Ad Hoc Covert Spy Networks that Target Dissidents as Outlaws," Monograph, (Somerville, MA: PRA, 1993 (1987)).

2 William Preston, Jr., Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903-1933; (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1963), pp. 11-34; Murray B. Levin, Political Hysteria in America-the Democratic Capacity for Repression, (New York: Basic Books, 1971);. 28-90.

3 On nativist roots, Ray Allen Billington, The Origins of Nativism in the United States 1800-1844 (New York: Arno Press Inc., 1974); John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism 1860-1925 (New York: Atheneum, 1972); David H. Bennett, The Party of Fear: The American Far Right from Nativism to the Militia Movement, (New York: Vintage Books, revised 1995, (1988)). David Brion Davis, "Some Themes of Counter-Subversion: An Analysis of Anti-Masonic, Anti-Catholic, and Anti-Mormon Literature," in Davis, ed., The Fear of Conspiracy: Images of Un-American Subversion from the Revolution to the Present, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1971), pp. 9-22.

4 Frank J. Donner, The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America's Political Intelligence System, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), p. 14. The most thorough analysis of US government countersubversion as a repressive phenomenon appears in Donner's Age of Surveillance and his Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police Repression in Urban America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990). A seminal work in shaping the Cold War countersubversive theory of the front is William R. Kintner, The Front is Everywhere, (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950), in which Kintner lays out his analysis of the communist style of subversion as that of a "Communist Fifth Column" involved in otherwise legal "political activity."

5 Donner, Age, p. 14.

6 See generally: Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style; Donner, Age of Surveillance; David Brion Davis, ed., The Fear of Conspiracy; Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown, Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1972); George Johnson, Architects of Fear: Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia in American Politics (Los Angeles: Tarcher/Houghton Mifflin, 1983); and Frank P. Mintz, The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985).

7 Davis, Fear of Conspiracy, pp. xv-xvi.

8 Donner, Age, p. 10.

9 In addition to discussions of repression in Bennett, Levin, Donner, Higham, Preston, and Rogin, see also Robert J. Goldstein, Political Repression in Modern America, 1870 to Present, 2nd edition, (Rochester VT: Schenkman Books, Inc., 1978); Athan Theoharis, Spying on Americans: Political Surveillance from Hoover to the Huston Plan, (Philadelphia, Pa: Temple University Press, 1978); Kenneth O'Reilly, Hoover and the Unamericans: The FBI, HUAC and the Red Menace, (Philadelphia, Pa: Temple University Press, 1983); Athan G. Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988); Ward Churchill & Jim Vander Wall. Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement, (Boston: South End Press, 1988); Kenneth O'Reilly, `Racial Matters:' The FBI's Secret File on Black America, 1960-1972, (New York: Free Press, 1988); Ward Churchill & Jim Vander Wall. COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI's Secret Wars Against Dissent in the United States, (Boston: South End Press, 1989).

10 Donner, Age, p. 11.

11 Donner, Age, p. 10.

12 Ibid., p. xv.

13 Chip Berlet, "Re-framing Dissent as Criminal Subversion," Covert Action Quarterly, Summer 1992, Number 41.

14 Donner, Age, p. 3.

15 Ibid., p. xix.

16 Ibid., p.17.

17 Ibid., p.17.

18 Donner, Age, pp. 4-5.

19 Donner, Age, pp. xv, 5, 455-460.

20 Sometimes called the "pluralist" school of thought in academia.

21 Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab, The Politics of Unreason: Right-Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970 (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1970), p. 428.

22 Daniel Bell, "Interpretations of American Politics," in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 55.

23 Richard Hofstadter, "Pseudo-Conservatism Revisited: A Postscript," in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 102.

24 Richard Hofstadter, "The Pseudo-Conservative Revolt,"in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 84.

25 Daniel Bell, "The Dispossessed," in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 10.

26 Alan Westin, "The John Birch Society," in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 261.

27 Peter Viereck, "The Revolt Against the Elite," in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 163.

28 Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., Random House, Inc., 1955), pp. 78-81.

29 Seymour Martin Lipset, "The Sources of the `Radical Right,'" in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 339.

30 Lipset and Raab, pp. 432-33.

31 David Riesman and Nathan Glazer, "The Intellectuals and the Discontented Classes," in The Radical Right: The New American Right Expanded and Updated, ed. Daniel Bell (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 126.

32 Viereck, p. 172.

33 J. J. Goldberg, Jewish Power: Inside the American Jewish Establishment, (Reading: MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996), p. 133.

34 Ibid. The three AJC studies cited by Goldberg as influential are: Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswick, Daniel J. Levinson, R. Nevitt Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950); Bruno Bettelheim and Morris Janowitz, The Dynamics of Prejudice, (New York: Harper & Row, 1950); Norman W. Ackerman and Marie Jahoda, Anti-Semitism and Emotional Disorder, (New York: Harper & Row, 1950).

35 Additional challenges to this early emphasis on personality and psychology are discussed in many recent studies.

36 Goldberg, Jewish Power, p. 133.

37 Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style, pp. 38-40, 43-46.

38 Hofstadter never claimed the paranoid style could be explained solely through a psychological approach, and many claims about paranoid extremists seem to be made by persons who remembered only the title of Hofstadter's study, and not his many qualifications of the term.

39 See, for example, Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein, Cross-Currents (Garden City, NY: Doubleday/ADL, 1956); Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein, Danger on the Right: The Attitudes, Personnel and Influence of the Radical Right and Extreme Conservatives, (New York: Random House/ADL, 1964); Benjamin R. Epstein, and Arnold Forster, The Radical Right: Report on the John Birch Society and Its Allies, (New York: Vintage Books/Random House/ADL, 1967); Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein, The New Anti-Semitism, (New York: McGraw-Hill/ADL, 1974).

40 Forster and Epstein, The New Anti-Semitism, dust cover fly-leaf blurb.

41 Selnick and Steinberg, The Tenacity of Prejudice, (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), pp. 168-169.

42 Diamond, Roads, pp. 178-202; Peter Steinfels, The Neo-Conservatives, The Men Who Are Changing America's Politics, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979). Louis A. Coser and Irving Howe, eds., The New Conservatives: A Critique from the Left, (New York: New American Library, 1976); Lawrence B. Joseph, "The Continuing Crisis of Pluralist Democracy: Neo-Conservatism and Revisionist Liberalism," Political Science Papers, #29, (St. Louis, MO: Department of Political Science, Washington University in St. Louis, 1979).

43 Lee Rainwater, and William L. Yancey, The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy: Including the text of Daniel Patrick Moynihan's The Negro Family: The Case for National Action, (Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1967).

44 Carl Ginsburg, Race and Media: The Enduring Life of the Moynihan Report. (New York, NY: Institute for Media Analysis, 1989), p.5.

45 Lucy A. Williams, "The Right's Attack on Aid to Families with Dependent Children," The Public Eye, Fall/Winter 1996; pp. 4-10.

46 Diamond, Roads, pp. 178-202, 279-283.

47 Williams, "The Right's Attack...," p. 10; citing Michael Lind, Up From Conservatism: Why the Right is Wrong for America, (1996) p. 2; and Alan Crawford, Thunder on the Right, (1980), pp. 250-51.

48 Michael Paul Rogin, Ronald Reagan, The Movie: and Other Episodes in Political Demonology (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), p. 278.

49 Ibid., p. 276.

50 Kazin, The Populist Persuasion, p.191.

51 Ibid.

52 A. James Gregor, The Fascist Persuasion in Radical Politics, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), the author concludes that differences between fascism and communism are "singularly superficial," p. 419.

53 Ribuffo, Old Christian Right, p. 241.

54 Ibid., p. 243.

55 Ibid., pp. 242-243.

56 Bell, "Interpretations," p. 71.

57 Richard O. Boyer and Herbert M. Morais, Labor's Untold Story, 3rd ed. (New York: United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, 1980), p. 179; Linda Gordon, Woman's Body, Woman's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America (New York: Viking Press, Grossman Publishers, 1976), p. 136; Richard Drinnon, Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire-Building (New York: Schocken Books, 1990), p. 232.

58 Bell, "Dispossessed," p. 2.

59 Rogin, Intellectuals, p. 54.

60 William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940 (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1963), p. 80.

61 Rogin, Intellectuals, p. 55.

62 Ibid., p. 217.

63 Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War, Vol. II, The Roaring of the Cataract, 1947-1950 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990), pp.109-17.

64 Diamond: "How `Radical' Is the Christian Right?" The Humanist, (Watch on the Right column), March/April 1994.

65 Fred W. Grupp, Jr., "The Political Perspectives of Birch Society Members;" and James McEvoy, III, "Conservatism or Extremism: Goldwater Supporters in the 1964 Presidential Election;" both in Robert A. Schoenberger, ed., The American Right Wing: Readings in Political Behavior, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969). Charles Jeffrey Kraft, A Preliminary Socio-Economic & State Demographic Profile of the John Birch Society, (Cambridge, MA: PRA, 1992).

66 Himmelstein, To The Right: p. 5.

67 James A. Aho, "A Library of Infamy," Idaho Libr. Vol. 41 No. 4, p. 86; citing to his then forthcoming book, The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism, (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1990).

68 Abbe L. Ferber, "Reconceptualizing the Racist Right," in Ward, Conspiracies.

69 Raphael S. Ezekiel, The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen, (New York: Viking (Penguin), 1995), p. 321.

70 Ibid. p. 321.

71 Curry & Brown, eds., "Introduction," Conspiracy, p. x. The author's list of unanswered questions about how conspiracist movements function (p. xi) is as pertinent today as when published in 1972.

72 William B. Hixson, Jr., Search for the American Right Wing: An Analysis of the Social Science Record, 1955-1987, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 307.

73 Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States (New York: The Guilford Press, 1995), p. 9.

74 William W. Keller, The Liberals and J. Edgar Hoover. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989).

75 See Donner, Age, pp. 414-451; Gelbspan, Break-ins, pp. 73-84, 169-173, 183-195; Chip Berlet, Hunt for Red Menace: How Government Intelligence Agencies and Private Right-wing Countersubversion Groups Forge Ad Hoc Covert Spy Networks that Target Dissidents as Outlaws," Monograph, (Somerville, MA: PRA, 1993 (1987)).

76 Jerome H. Skolnick and James J. Fyfe, Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force, (New York: The Free Press, 1993), pp. 1-16, 23-42, 71-82, 103-106, 238-241.

77 Robert I. Friedman, "The Anti-Defamation League is Spying on You," Village Voice, 5/11/93, pp. 27-32; Jane Hunter, "Who Was the ADL Spying For?" Israeli Foreign Affairs, May, 1993; John M. Crew, A Conspiracy of Silence: San Francisco's Failure to Address Police Intelligence Abuses, American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California, Police Practices Project, August 30, 1993; Kim Malcheski, "Summary of the 700+ pages released by the San Francisco District Attorney's office regarding spying activities of R. Bullock, Fact Finder for the Anti-Defamation League and Tom Gerard, retired police officer from the San Francisco Police Department," litigation research memo for civil lawsuit, no date, on file at PRA.

78 Friedman, "The Anti-Defamation League is Spying on You."

79 Ibid.

80 Dennis King and Chip Berlet, "ADLgate," Tikkun magazine, Vol. 8, No. 4, p. 31. See also: Dennis King and Chip Berlet, "The A.D.L. Under Fire: It's Shift to Right Has Led to Scandal," The New York Times, May 28, 1993, p. A29 (Op-Ed).

81 Jeremy Kalmanofsky, "Defaming the Anti-Defamation League," Moment, August 1993, pp. 38-43, 62-64; Abraham H. Foxman, "It's a Big Lie, Hailed by Anti-Semites," The New York Times, May 28, 1993, p. A29 (Op-Ed); Irwin Suall, Mira Boland, "Anti-Defamation League Investigates Extremists of All Stripes," Letter to the Editor, The New York Times, June 19, 1993, p. 20; Abraham H. Foxman, "The Big Lie," The Jewish Journal, May 21-27, 1993.

82 Abraham H. Foxman, "L'Affaire San Francisco," The Jewish Journal, November 19-25, 1993, p. 6;

83 Dennis J Opatrny and Scott Winokur, "DA Drops Spy Case Against ADL: Jewish rights group accepts injunction, denies misconduct.," San Francisco Examiner, 11/16/93, p. A1.

84 Crew, A Conspiracy of Silence.

85 Dennis King's book, Get the Facts on Anyone, (New York: Prentice Hall, 1992) began when, as a consultant to ADL, he wrote a manual on investigative techniques to encourage ADL staff to stop relying so heavily on biased law enforcement data.

86 See, for example: Hitler's Apologists: The Anti-Semitic Propaganda of Holocaust "Revisionism." Anti-Defamation League. (New York: Anti- Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1993); Sounds of Hate: Neo-Nazi Rock Music from Germany (1992); Neo Nazi Skinheads: A 1990 Status Report, (1990).

87 Abdeen Jabara, "The Anti-Defamation League: Civil Rights and Wrongs," CovertAction Quarterly, Summer 1993, pp. 28-37.

88 Guild Investigative Group, "Right-Wing Intelligence Network Exposed," The Public Eye, Fall 1977, pp. 38-55; Berlet, Hunt for Red Menace, (Cambridge, MA: Political Research Associates, 1993), p. 53; Gelbspan, Break-Ins, pp. 77-84.

89 Gelbspan, Break-Ins, pp. 165, 169-171. Doug Birch, "Master of the Politics of Paranoia," The Baltimore Sun, magazine, June 5, 1988, pp. 24-27.

90 Diamond, Roads, p. 218. Gelbspan, Break-Ins, pp. 171-173.

91 Gelbspan, Break-Ins, pp. 171-173.

92 Informational sheets and reports from Mid-Atlantic Research Associates, Early Warning, and The Maldon Institute, on file at PRA. Conversations with Mira Boland of ADL and John Rees in the 1980's. The LaRouche organization's published treatments of these issues involving ADL and Ms. Boland have been grotesquely vicious and antisemitic, and we explicitly distance ourselves from their bigoted analysis.

93 Diamond, Spiritual Warfare, p. 60. On endorsement, see back cover of William T. Still, New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies, (Lafayette, LA: Huntington House, 1990).

94 W. Raymond Wannall, "KGB Into the Breach," Nightwatch: Special Report, Security and Intelligence Foundation, 1987, on file at PRA. M. Wesley Swearingen, FBI Secrets: An Agent's Exposé, (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1995), pp. 101-102; Donner, Age, pp. 70-71.

95 See footnotes to Moss articles in Broken Seals, Western Goals Foundation, no date: note 77, Robert Moss, Daily Telegraph (London), December 4, 1978, p. 6; note 100, Ibid. June 18, 1979, p. 6.

96 Among other incidents, see Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis and Latin American, Death Squads Have Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League, (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1986), "Acknowledgments and Disacknowledgments."

97 Warren Blumenfeld, "Put `Anti' Back in the Anti-Defamation League," Gay Community News, October 22-28, 1989; transcript of speech protesting an award given by the New England Office of the Anti-Defamation of B'nai B'rith to neoconservative icon John Silber, president of Boston University. "ADL's supposed shift to the right: Is it no longer a `clear voice?'" by Sheldon Englemeyer; syndicated column distributed in 1992. Dennis King and Chip Berlet, "The A.D.L. Under Fire: It's Shift to Right Has Led to Scandal," The New York Times, May 28, 1993, p. A29 (Op-Ed). King and Berlet, "ADLgate," Tikkun, pp. 31-36, 100-102.

98 Mary McGrory, "Minimizing the Malek Affair," column, The Washington Post, 9/13/88; Letters exchange, Irwin Suall with Joe Conason and Murray Waas, The Village Voice, 11/5/85, regarding Conason and Waas: "The Old Right's New Crusade," 10/21/85; Letters exchange, Abraham Foxman with Robert I. Friedman, The Village Voice, 9/1/92, regarding Friedman: "The Israeli Lobby's Blacklist," 8/4/92 and "A PAC with McCarthy," 8/25/92.

99 Mira L. Boland, "Costa-Gavras Hidden Agenda Betrayed," Wall Street Journal, 9/15/1988, p. 30./

100 Alan Sverdlik, "Keeping an Eye on Hate Groups," Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 11/3/89. Rev. C.T. Vivian, "Article on Center for Democratic Renewal Contains Errors," letter to the editor, Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 11/24/89.

101 Max Boot, "Fighting Terrorism, Then and Now," Wall Street Journal, 5/8/95, Sec A, p. 14.

102 Louis F. Post, The Deportations Delerium of Nineteen-Twenty (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1923), p. 209.

103 G. Flint Taylor, "Supreme Court Review: 1995-1996 Term," Police Misconduct and Civil Rights Law Report, July-August, 1996, p. 37; "The Bill of Rights at Risk," brochure, National Committee Against Repressive Legislation, 1996.

104 Ken Stern, A Force Upon the Plain, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), pp. 50-56;

105 Raphael S. Ezekiel, The Racist Mind, Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen, (New York: Viking/Penguin, 1995), pp. 28-29.

106 A thoughtful study devoted to this dynamic of state repression against White supremacists is William Karl Ziegenhorn, "No Rest for the Wicked: The FBI Investigations of White Supremacist Groups, 1983-1988, Masters Thesis, Dept. of History, San Jose State University, May 1995.

107 In addition to Rogin, Intellectuals, pp. 261-282; see also Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown, eds., "Introduction," Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972), pp. vii-xi; Ribuffo, The Old Christian Right, pp. 237-257; Margaret Canovan, Populism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981), pp. 46-51 179-190; Jerome L. Himmelstein, To The Right: The Transformation of American Conservatism, (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1990), pp. 1-5, 72-76, 152-164. Diamond, Roads, pp. 5-6, 40-41; Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History. (New York: Basic Books, 1995). pp. 190-193 See Schoenberger, ed., The American Right Wing; and Rogin, The Intellectuals and McCarthy, for statistical data that refutes some of the claims made by centrist/extremist theory about the social base of the "radical right."

108 Social movement theory is a broad popular term for a collection of analytical models rooted in dialectical analysis and power structure research which examines the mobilization of groups of people seeking to change the social or political system. The term "social movement theory" is used in the generic sense to encompass the basic elements of several academic schools including, "New Social Movements Theory," "Resource Mobilization Theory," and the "Political Process Model," among others.

109 We reject narrow definitions of what constitutes a social movement applied by some academics. Social change organizers helped build social movements in many varieties before the term was used in academia to describe only the most volatile phenomenon.

110 The four elements of social movement theory described here are based on language developed by John C. Green of the Ray Bliss Center at the University of Akron, Ohio, and presented as a paper in New York City in 1995 at a symposium hosted by Lumiere Productions.

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