September 11, Terror War, and Blowback
1 Fukujama's 1992 book was an expansion of a 1989 article published in the conservative journal The National Interest. The texts generated a tremendous amount of controversy and were seen by some as a new dominant ideology proclaiming the triumph of Western ideals of capitalism and democracy over all off their opponents. With a quasi-Hegelian gloss, Fukujama thus proclaimed the victory of the Ideas of neo-Liberalism and the "end of history," prompted both skepticism ("it ain't over, til its over") and impassioned critique.
2 In a October 5, 2001, Wall Street Journal editorial Rush Limbaugh wrote: "Mr. Clinton can be held culpable for not doing enough when he was commander in chief to combat the terrorists who wound up attacking the World Trade Center and Pentagon." Shortly thereafter, Limbaugh confessed that he was almost fully deaf and had been feigning dialogue on his radio show all year. On rightwing attempts to blame Clinton for the terrorist attacks, see John F. Harris "Conservatives Sound Refrain: It's Clinton's Fault,"
3 Shortly after this and other outbursts, the frothing Coulter was fired from National Review when she reacted violently to efforts to tone down her rhetoric by the editors, helping to provide her with martyr status for the U.S. rightwing of Talibanites.
4 See the translation of the 1998 Le Monde interview where Carter's National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski bragged about how he conceived of arming of Islam-extremist militants against the Afghan government as a ploy to draw in the Soviet Union more deeply and thus help destroy their system. October 8, 2001 http://www.counterpunch.org/wtcarchive.html.
5 In addition to Johnson 2000 that I am utilizing to provide a conceptual overview of the September 11 terrorist acts, I am also drawing upon a series of studies of U.S. foreign policy and Afghanistan, including Mary Ann Weaver, "Blowback," Atlantic Monthly (May 1996), available at www.theatlantic.com/issues/96may/blowback.htm; a collection of articles contextualizing the events at The Nation web site, especially Dilip Hiro, "The Cost of an Afghan `Victory,'" at http://www.thenation.com; and articles collected at http://www.counterpunch.com. I am also grateful to Phil Agre's daily collection of articles on his Red Rock Eater list, collected at http://dlis.gseis.ucla.edu/people/pagre/rre.html.
6 See Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, " " Counterpunch, October See their archive for useful daily postings on the current crisis, http://www.counterpunch.org/wtcarchive.html.
7 In the Southeast Asian press, there are speculations that U.S. policy in Afghanistan under Bush II were to stabilize the country under Taliban rule to enable the UNCOL-corporation to build a gas pipe-line across Afghanistan and exploit its potential natural gas and oil resources. See Ranjit Devrag who writes:
Where the "great game" in Afghanistan was once about czars and commissars seeking access to the warm water ports of the Persian Gulf, today it is about laying oil and gas pipelines to the untapped petroleum reserves of Central Asia. According to testimony before the US House of Representatives in March 1999 by the conservative think tank Heritage Foundation, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan together have 15 billion barrels of proven oil reserves. The same countries also have proven gas deposits totaling not less than nine trillion cubic meters. Another study by the Institute for Afghan Studies placed the total worth of oil and gas reserves in the Central Asian republics at around US$3 trillion at last year's prices.
8 See "Flordians Stockpile Anhtrax Antibiotics" and "Bioterrorism Jitters Close Subway Stop, IRS Center," Los Angles Times (October 10, 2001: A3).
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