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1 Anthony F. C. Wallace, "Revitalization Movements," American Anthropologist, vol. 58, no. 2, April 1956, pp.


2 Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God (New York: Ballantine Books, 2001).

3 Jamal Malik. "Making Sense of Islamic Fundamentalism," ISIM Newsletter, 1, (International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World). October 1998. Originally online at Retrieved 10/19/2001. New Url: (4/22/03)..

4 Roger Griffin, The Nature of Fascism (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991), p. xi.

5 On Kirkpatrick's theory, see Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in

the United States (New York: Guilford Press, 1995), pp. 198, 216-217. For Arendt's actual thesis, see Hannah

Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, [1951] 1973), especially pp.


6 Armstrong, Battle, pp. 361-362.

7 Ibid., p. 238.

8 Ibid.

9 Walter Laqueur, Fascism: Past, Present, Future (New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp.


10 E-mail exchange with author, 10/15/2001.

11 Gershom Gorenberg, The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount (New York:

The Free Press, 2000).

12 Armstrong, Battle, p. 363. See also p. 244.

13 René Girard, The Scapegoat (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986).

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