1 Slevin, Peter. (2001). " In Anthrax Probe, Questions of Skill, Motive: Some Terrorism Specialists Suspect an Angry Loner With Scientific Knowledge," Washington Post, November 5, 2001; Page A05

2 Goldenthal, Howard. (1991). "Khadafy Connections," Now (Toronto alternative weekly), July 4.

3 "Neo-Nazi Mercenaries Sign on for Desert War," Searchlight, March 1991, p. 5.

4 Ibid, p. 5.

5 Ibid. p. 5.

6 Mareln, Richard. "Recap: The Third Position and the Political Soldiers" Searchlight, January 1990, p. 8.

7 For a brilliant short essay on the rise of the Nouvelle Droit see "Pograms Begin in the Mind" by Wolfgang Haug, a transcribed lecture with a challenging introduction by Janet Biehl. Green Perspectives, May 1992, (P.O. Box 111, Burlington, Vermont 05402).

8 These two paragraphs are adapted from Berlet, Chip. (1994 [1990]). Right Woos Left: Populist Party, LaRouchian, and Other Neo-fascist Overtures to Progressives and Why They Must Be Rejected. Cambridge, MA: Political Research Associates. Online at

9 Kaplan, Jeffrey, and Tore Bjørgo (Eds.). (1998). Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture. Boston: Northeastern University Press; Kaplan, Jeffrey, and Leonard Weinberg. (1998). The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

10 Antonio, Robert. (2000). "After Postmodernism: Reactionary Tribalism." American Journal of Sociology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 40-87.

11 Southern Poverty Law Center. (2000). "´Neither Left Nor Right´" Intelligence Report, Winter 2000, pp. 40-47.

12 Roger Griffin, Nature of Fascism, pp. 166-172. For general background, see Jeffrey Kaplan and Leonard Weinberg, Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right; Jeffrey Kaplan and Tore Bjørgo, eds., Nation and Race; Martin A. Lee, Beast Reawakens; Cheles, Ferguson, and Vaughan, eds., Far Right in Western and Eastern Europe; Merkl and Weinberg, eds., Encounters with the Contemporary Radical Right; Hockenos, Free to Hate; Michael Schmidt, New Reich; Golsan, ed., Fascism's Return. On philosophical aspects of neofascist and ethnonationalist ideology, see Antonio, "After Postmodernism." On occult roots of some neofascist movements, see Spielvogel and Redles, "Hitler's Racial Ideology."

13 See, for example, the magazines The Third Way and Scorpion.

14 "Metzger Begins Move to the Top," The Monitor, January 1988, p. 5. See also Lawrence, "Klansmen, Nazis, Skinheads," p. 33. On antecedents, see Schmaltz, Hate.

15 Monique Wolfing (leader of the Aryan Women's League), discussion with Tom Metzger on "Race and Reason," aired on San Francisco public access television, May 1989. See also Zia, "Women in Hate Groups."

16 "What Next For Metzger & WAR," The Monitor, March 1991, p. 9. For background on the skinhead subculture see Hamm, American Skinheads.

17 On de Benoist, see Martin A. Lee, Beast Reawakens, pp. 208-215; on convergence between continents, see Jeffrey Kaplan and Tore Bjørgo, eds., Nation and Race; on Third Position and racially separate nation-states, see Antonio, "After Postmodernism."

18 Dobratz and Shanks-Meile, "White Power, White Pride!"

19 Ibid., p. 124. See also Dobratz and Shanks-Meile, "Ideology and the Framing Process."

20 Ibid., pp. 89-107.

21 Kinsella, Warren. (1995). Web of Hate: Inside Canada's Far Right Network. New York: HarperPerrenial, p. 258.

22 Ibid. p. 248-249.

23 Ibid. p. 238.

24 Ibid. p. 258.

25 On the LaRouchite-Nation of Islam connection, see Magida, "Evil Twins"; Benjamin, "La Rouche, Nation of Islam Team Up"; Marable, "No Compromise." For examples, see "´We Must Accept the Responsibility of Freedom´: An interview with Minister Louis Farrakhan," New Federalist, June 12, 1995, pp. 5-7; Dennis Speed, "LaRouche, Farrakhan, Chavis Mobilize Against Nazi Economics," New Federalist, July 15, 1996, pp. 1, 4. On Metzger's links with the Nation of Islam, see Wayne King, "White Supremacists Voice Support of Farrakhan"; Southern Poverty Law Center, "Klan leader attends Farrakhan rally," Klanwatch, Winter 1985.
The beginnings of the alliance between the LaRouchites and the Nation of Islam track back to the early 1990s. The Nation of Islam's
Final Call newspaper ran an article by LaRouchite Carlos Wesley on Panama in its issue of May 31, 1990, p. 10. It was credited as a reprint from the LaRouchite Executive Intelligence Review. The LaRouchite New Federalist ran several articles praising the political work of Nation of Islam spokesman Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad (including articles on September 14, 1990, p. 1; and September 28, 1990, p. 10); and his speech at a LaRouchite Schiller Institute meeting in Paris was reported in the Nation of Islam's Final Call on December 24, 1990, p. 3. The Schiller Institute-Food for Peace Anti-War Teach In, December 15-16, 1990, featured Abdul Wali Muhammad, Editor of the Final Call newspaper as a speaker; the meeting program is on file at Political Research Associates. By 1992 joint campus appearances by representatives of Executive Intelligence Review, The Nation of Islam, and The Schiller Institute, featured attacks on the Anti-Defamation League (ADL); flyers are on file at Political Research Associates. This evolved into publications and speeches claiming the ADL was part of a conspiracy involving the Freemasons and the Ku Klux Klan, featuring a campaign to remove the statue of Confederate General Albert Pike from its pedestal in Washington, DC; see, for example, Marianna Wertz, "Pike Issue Before Congress," New Federalist, May 17, 1993, p. 1, which featured comments by the 1960s civil rights leader the Rev. James L. Bevel, an African American who has worked with the LaRouchites for many years. See also Brackman, Farrakhan's Reign of Historical Error.

26 Kalman and Murray, "Icke Man Cometh"; Damian Thompson, "Gaia Anti-Christ and the Ex-Files: A Trawl through the Cultic Milieu," lecture, Kingston University, March 5, 1997, http://www. kingston. ac. uk/cusp/Lectures/Thompson. htm; Derek Wall, "Darker Shades of Green," Red Pepper, no date, online archive, http://www. redpepper. org. uk/cularch/xdkgreen. html; Will Offley, "David Icke and the Politics of Madness: Where the New Age Meets the Third Reich," online essay, February 29, 2000, http://www. publiceye. org/Icke/IckeBackgrounder. htm.

27 "David Icke-Anti-Semitic or Just Naive?" Green World, British Green Party, 1995 statement reproduced by Green Party of Ontario at http://www. flora. org/flora. action-forum/742, retrieved May 1, 2000; "Greens to Protest David Icke at Hart House Theatre, October 6," press release, Green Party of Ontario; "David Icke: Part of the Problem, Not the Solution," leaflet produced by Green Party Anti-Racist and Anti-Fascist Network; both online at http://www. flora. org/flora. action-forum/742, retrieved May 1, 2000. See also Biehl and Staudenmaier, Ecofascism.

28 In addition to those cited above (Berlet of Political Research Associates; Ramos, of the Western States Center; Mozzochi and Rhinegard of the Coalition for Human Dignity; and Novick of People Against Racist Terror), a number of progressive voices were raised against the growing recruitment within the Left by the Right, including author Sara Diamond; researcher Richard Hatch; Erwin Knoll, editor of the Progressive; author Holly Sklar; journalist David Barsamian, of Alternative Radio; Tom Burghardt of the Bay Area Coalition for Our Reproductive Rights; Hank Roth of the online Progressive News and Views; Michael Albert of Z Magazine; and columnist Joel Bleifus of In These Times; among others. See also Barsamian, "Militias and Conspiracy Theories"; Givel, "Progressive Populism and Conspiracy Theories," "Conspiracy Thinking, Part II"; Albert, "Conspiracy? . . . Not!," "Conspiracy? . . . Not, Again."

29 Biehl, "Militia Fever," citing Alexander Cockburn, "Who's Left? Who's Right?" Beat the Devil column, Nation, June 12, 1995, p. 820; and Jason McQuinn, "Conspiracy Theory vs. Alternative Journalism?" Alternative Press Review, Winter 1996, p. 2.

30 Mozzochi and Rhinegard, Rambo, Gnomes and the New World Order, p. 1.

31 Michael Paulson, "WTO Meets Amid Real Splits Opponents Outside, Divisions Within Promise Raucous Week," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, November 30, 1999, p. A1; "Violent Images Tarnish Orderly WTO Protesters," editorial, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, January 10, 2000, p. A5; online at Newslibrary.

32 Southern Poverty Law Center, "´Neither Left Nor Right.´"

33 The report did not make these claims, and in fact carried a number of cautions and caveats apparently ignored by many readers, but author Berlet heard the report interpreted incorrectly by several law enforcement officials and their consultants.

34 John Ward Anderson, "Poor Nations' Leaders Back Washington Protesters; Group Says IMF and World Bank Policies ´Stabilized Poverty,´" Washington Post, April 16, 2000, p. A31; Henry Allen, "That Was Then, This Is Now; In Today's Revolution, Internet Takes the Place of Leadership," Washington Post, Friday, April 14, 2000, p. C1, online archive. On police abuse, see Terry J. Allen, "Breaking Law to Keep Order."


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