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1 Knight, Robert, at workshop, "The Homosexualizing
of America," at the 2nd annual Parents and Friends of Ex-Gays Conference,
6-8 March 1998, McLean, VA.
2 The term "ex-gay" implies that homosexuals
have changed their orientation to heterosexuality. However, this is not
the case. Leaders of the ex-gay movement coined the term "ex-gay" as
a quick way to speak of Christians who may be struggling with their sexual
orientation. But the term proved problematic and even leaders of the ex-gay
movement have attempted to move away from it because it doesn't accurately
describe people involved in the movement. "...ex-gay. Someone fresh
out of a gay lifestyle wasn't exactly gay anymore, but they weren't exactly
straight yet..." noted ex-gay leader Brad Sargeant in a 1994 issue
of the Exodus Standard. See Brad Sargeant, "Word Usage in Ministry
to (Ex-Gays) Overcomers," Exodus Standard, 11 No. 3, (1994), 7. The
term ex-gay will be used throughout this report (without quotations) despite
its disingenuous nature.
3 A series of ads were placed in the national
media beginning with an ad in The New York Times on 13 July 1998 followed
by an ad on 14 July 1998 in The Washington Post and one in USA Today on
15 July 1998. The ad campaign continued with placements in The Chicago
Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and The Wall Street Journal. The ads were
sponsored and paid for by fifteen right-wing organizations: Alliance for
Traditional Marriage-Hawaii, American Family Association, Americans for
Truth About Homosexuality, Center for Reclaiming America, Christian Family
Network, Christian Coalition, Citizens for Community Values, Colorado for
Family Values, Concerned Women for America, Coral Ridge Ministries, Family
First, Family Research Council, Liberty Counsel, National Legal Foundation
and Kerusso Ministries.
4 See "Ex-Gay Ads Spark Media Firestorm:
Millions hear about Exodus through Time, Newsweek, `Good Morning America'
and a host of other media," Exodus North America Update (August 1998).
5 When discussing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and
transgender rights from the perspective of that community, the more inclusive
term lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender is used. However, a review of Christian
Right and ex-gay literature shows that the Right does not make specific
references to bisexual and transgender people. Thus, when gay rights is
defined by the Right, their less inclusive terms, gay rights and/or lesbians
and gay men are applied.
6 The term "reparative therapy" is
a phrase recently coined by Joseph Nicolosi. See Joseph Nicolosi Reparative
Therapy of Male Homosexuality: A New Clinical Approach (Northvale, NJ:
Jason Aronson Inc., 1991). See also Charles W. Socarides, M.D. Homosexuality:
A Freedom Too Far (Phoenix, AZ: Adam Margrave Books, 1995) and Jack Drescher, "I'm
Your Handyman: A History of Reparative Therapies," Journal of Homosexuality
36 (1) (1998).
7 Chip Berlet, "Following the Threads," in
New Right, New Racism: Race and Reaction in the United States and Britain
ed. Amy Elizabeth Ansell (New York: NYU Press, 1997).
8 For an introduction to various contemporary
academic views on how social movements interact with politics, see: Aldon
D. Morris and Carol McClung Mueller, eds., Frontiers in Social Movement
Theory (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992); Sidney Tarrow, Power
in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics, (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1994); and John Lofland, Social Movement Organizations:
Guide to Research on Insurgent Realities, (New York: Aldine de Gruyter,
1996). For a discussion of the role of religion in shaping social movement
strategies, see Christian Smith, "Correcting a Curious Neglect, or
Bringing Religions Back In," in Disruptive Religion: The Force of
Faith in Social-Movement Activism ed. Christian Smith (New York: Routledge,
9 For a detailed discussion of the Christian
Right's theocratic agenda see Frederick Clarkson, Eternal Hostility: The
Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press,
10 Academic Lee Quinby has written about the
term coercive purity. See Quinby, "Coercive Purity" in The Year
2000: Essays on the End eds. Charles B. Strozier and Michael Flynn (New
York, NY: New York University Press, 1997). See also, Richard K. Fenn, "Rituals
of Purification: Renewing Time" in The End of Time: Religion, Ritual,
and the Forging of the Soul (Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 1997).
11 Exodus Policy Statement on Homosexuality,
Exodus International Fact Sheet, undated.
12 Exodus claims ministries in Brazil, Peru,
Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, The Netherlands, England, Ireland, France, Denmark,
Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Japan,
Philippines, and South Africa. Exodus website http://exodus.base.org, 20
13 Exodus Fact Sheet, supra note 11.
14 See Surina Khan, "Homosexual Healing," Boston
Magazine, July 1998. For historical information on Exodus International
see One Nation Under God, a video that explores the lives of Michael Busee
and Gary Cooper, the two men who co-founded Exodus International and left
the anti-gay ministry after falling in love with each other.
15 See Bob Davies and Lori Rentzel, Coming Out
of Homosexuality: New Freedom For Men and Women (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity
16 Dollof, Cyndi, presentation entitled, "Q&A
with Cyndi," at the 2nd annual P-Fox conference, 6-8 March 1998.
17 See Martin Duberman, Cures: A Gay Man's Odyssey
(New York, NY: Plume, 1991). See also Mel White, Stranger At the Gate:
To Be Gay and Christian in America (New York, NY: Plume, 1994).
18 NARTH brochure, "Taking a Stand: For
Those Seeking Freedom from Homosexuality," undated. See also "Answers
to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality," American
Psychological Association, undated.
19 Statement of Policy, NARTH, http://www.narth.com/statement.html,
6 May 1997.
20 Charles Socarides, Benjamin Kaufman, Joseph
Nicolosi, Jeffrey Satinover and Richard Fitzgibbons, "Don't Forsake
Homosexuals Who Want Help," The Wall Street Journal, 9 January 1997.
See also Jeffrey Satinover, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth (Grand
Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996).
21 "Resolution on Treatments to Alter Sexual
Orientation: Questions & Answers," American Psychological Association,
14 August 1997, 2. See also, "Answers to Your Questions About Sexual
Orientation and Homosexuality," American Psychological Association. "Much
objective scientific research over the past 35 years shows us that homosexual
orientation, in and of itself, is not associated with emotional or social
problems. Homosexuality was thought to be a mental illness in the past
because mental health professionals and society had biased information
about homosexuality since most studies only involved lesbians and gay men
in therapy. When researchers examined data about gay people who were not
in therapy, the idea that homosexuality was a mental illness was found
to be untrue." It is important to note that the American Psychiatric
Association includes diagnostic categories for Gender Identity Disorder
and Transvestic Fetishism in the fourth edition of the DSM (1994).
22 See Kim I. Mills, "Mission Impossible:
Why Reparative Therapy and Ex-Gay Ministries Fail," Human Rights Campaign,
23 Jeffrey Satinover, MD, Homosexuality and
the Politics of Truth, 189. See also Joseph Nicolosi, Reparative Therapy
of Male Homosexuality: A New Clinical Approach.
24 Ex-gay therapists and counselors have been
unable to conduct longitudinal studies of clients' sexuality for ethical
reasons. It is impossible to conduct this kind of study because it is unethical
for therapists to contact clients once they have terminated therapy. Dr.
Uriel Meshoulam, member, Scientific Advisory Committee, NARTH, in interview
with author. See "New Survey: Gays Can Change," Exodus International
Update, July 1997. The article notes: "The study was conducted over
two years among nearly 860 individuals struggling to overcome homosexuality
and more than 200 psychologists and therapists who treat them. Before treatment,
68 percent of respondents perceived themselves as exclusively or almost
entirely homosexual, with another 22 percent stating that they were more
homosexual than heterosexual. After treatment, only 13 percent perceived
themselves as exclusively or almost entirely homosexual, while 33 percent
described themselves as either exclusively or almost entirely heterosexual."
25 Joseph Nicolosi, Ph.D., telephone interview
with author, 13 May 1998.
26 Jack Drescher, MD, "I'm Your Handyman."
27 For a historical analysis of the Right's
attack on lesbians and gay men see Jean Hardisty, "Constructing Homophobia:
Colorado's Right-Wing Attack on Homosexuals," in Eyes Right!: Challenging
the Right-Wing Backlash ed. Chip Berlet (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1995).
The following books published by the right are useful primary source materials:
Tim LaHaye, The Unhappy Gays (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.,
1978); Enrique Rueda, The Homosexual Network (Old Greenwich, CT: The Devin
Adair Company, 1982); Michael Schwartz and Enrique Rueda, Gays Aids and
You (Old Greenwich, CT: The Devin Adair Company, 1987).
28 Louis Sheldon, "Are Gay Rights Right?" Traditional
Values Report, July 1989.
29 For more on Jeremiah Films: http://www.publiceye.org/conspire/clinton/networks-04.htm.
Jeremiah Films made the homophobic video Gay Rights, Special Rights, which
claims gays and lesbians are degrading the civil rights movement. This
video features Senator Trent Lott as the major on-camera figure. Republican
Party stalwarts Ed Meese (former attorney general) and William Bennett
(former secretary of education) appear along with notorious conspiracists
such as David Noebel of Summit Ministries. Noebel has written an entire
high school curriculum that claims to expose the secular humanist conspiracy.
According to a spokesperson for Jeremiah Films, it made the video and distributes
it, but the opening sequence announces the video is from Citizens United
for the Preservation of Civil Rights, and the closing sequence refers viewers
to the Traditional Values Coalition, while critics claim the video was
actually made for and distributed free to Congress by the Springs of Life
Ministries, a close ally of the TVC. See: "Traditional Values Coalition," People
for the American Way, URL: <http://www.pfaw.org/gyrgts6.htm>; Frederick
Clarkson, "More Bigotry on the Ballot," Freedom Writer, Institute
for First Amendment Studies, URL: <http://www.berkshire.net/~ifas/fw/940002/bigotry.html>;
Deb Price, "As Dole's Likely Successor in Senate, Lott is a Real Worry
for Gay Americans," The Detroit News, 22 March 1996, URL: <http://detnews.com/menu/stories/40909.htm>;
David Deitcher, "The Gay Agenda," Art in America, Issues and
Commentary, April 1994, pp. 27-35; additional information from Renée
DeLapp, Western States Center.
30 See Chip Berlet, "Who Is Mediating the
Storm? Right-Wing Alternative Information Networks," and Ioannis Mookas, "Faultlines:
Homophobic Innovation in Gay Rights/Special Rights," in Culture Media,
and the Religious Right eds. Linda Kintz & Julia Lesage (Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1998).
31 Sara Diamond, Not by Politics Alone: The
Enduring Influence of the Christian Right (New York, NY: Guilford Press,
1998 - forthcoming.)
32 FRC Cultural Director Robert Knight, interview
with author, 14 May 1998: "FRC for the last five years has been openly
and enthusiastically aiding the ex-gay movement. Initially here in Washington,
DC, through Anthony Falzarano's group, Transformation Ex-Gay Ministires,
we've given grants to them and publishing assistance and we have helped
publicize their availability. I will do my best to speak out on their behalf.
We will provide financial aid. We are doing publications and videos to
show the importance of ex-gay ministry. And we are going to make a major
effort in the schools to turn back the homosexual propaganda that students
are getting and show them that that's only one side of the story."
33 See John Paulk with Tony Marco, Not Afraid
to Change: The Remarkable Story of How One Man Overcame Homosexuality (Mukilteo,
WA: WinePress Publishing, 1998).
34 See FRC press release, "'Once Gay, Always
Gay' Not True, Love Offers Real Hope, Knight Says," 10 October 1996.
See also, "Anti-Gay Support Group," The Public Eye, Fall/Winter
35 Carl Wieser, "Gay Marriage on Front
Line of America's Culture War," Asheville Citizen Times, Asheville,
NC 31 March 1996. Also, Michael Johnston was featured on the Christian
Broadcasting Network's "NewsWatch Today" on 15 May, 1996 where
he said, "This is the brass ring of the homosexual movement. If they
get same-sex marriage, they will get adoptions, they will get forced sex-education
in the schools...because you can't call a homosexual couple a marriage
and then deny them children."
36 Amendment 2 was a 1992 Colorado ballot initiative
that sought to amend the Colorado constitution in order to legally forbid
the state, its municipalities, school districts, or agencies from guaranteeing
non-discrimination to those with "homosexual, lesbian, or bisexual
orientation." The Amendment passed in November 1992, but was subsequently
overturned by the US Supreme Court.
37 Marco was a founder and former Director of
Communications for Colorado for Family Values. See Tony Marco, "Special
Class Protections for Gays: A Question of Behavior and Consequences," 1992;
and Tony Marco, "Special Gay Rights Legislation," 1991. Both
reports were obtained by the legal team litigating to block Amendment 2
in Colorado. On file at Political Research Associates. See also, John Paulk
with Tony Marco, Not Afraid to Change.
38 See Challenging the Ex-Gay Movement: An Information
Packet, (published by Political Research Associates, the National Gay and
Lesbian Task Force, and Equal Partners in Faith: October 1998).
39 American Family Association press release, "`National
`Coming out of Homosexuality Day' Helps Homosexuals Leave Lifestyle," undated,
included in National Coming Out of Homosexuality Day press packet, October
40 Diamond, Not By Politics Alone, 165.
41 In Not By Politics Alone, Diamond cites "Once
Gay Always Gay," Focus on the Family (March 1994), 2-3.
42 Diamond, Not By Politics Alone, 165.
43 "Survey Reveals Strong Christian Nationalism," Freedom
Writer Magazine, September 1996.
44 See Skipp Porteous, "Reclaiming America
for Christ," Freedom Writer Magazine, March/April 1997.
45 See "Overview of Religious Attitudes
Toward Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender People," prepared by
The Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and collected
from The Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, http://www.religioustolerance.org.
46 Letter from US Catholic Bishops, 1997.
47 "Overview of Religious Attitudes Toward
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender People."
48 Statement from Union of American Hebrew Congregations,
Religious Action Center.
49 Letter from the US Catholic Bishops, 1997.
50 The full list of churches and religious organizations
that endorsed the Employment Non-Discrimination Act includes: The American
Ethical Union, American Friends Service Committee, American Jewish Congress,
American Jewish Committee, Church of the Brethren, Church Women United,
Dignity/USA, Episcopal Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America,
Hadassah, WZOA, The Interfaith Alliance, Jewish Women International (formerly
B'nai B'rith Women), Lutheran Office for Governmental Affairs - Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America, National Council of Churches, National Council
of Churches of Christ in the USA, National Council of Jewish Women, National
Council of La Raza, North Georgia United Methodists, Presbyterian Church
USA, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Religious Action Center, Unitarian
Universalist Association, United Church of Christ (Office for Church and
Society),United Methodist Church, General Board of Church and Society,
Women of Reform Judaism, The Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, Young Women's
Christian Association. Compiled by Leadership Conference on Civil Rights,
51 See "Faith and Fairness: People of Faith
Support Protecting Americans from Job Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation," a
poll by the Human Rights Campaign on the Employment Non-Discrimination
Act, 1996. Results came from a national survey of 1,007 voters conducted
5-8 November 1996 for the Human Rights Campaign by the polling firm of
Greenberg Research Inc. The poll's margin of error is plus or minus 3.1
percent. See also "Americans Strongly Support the Employment Non-Discrimination
Act (ENDA) and Equal Job Opportunities for Gay and Lesbian People",
a poll conducted for the Human Rights Campaign by the Tarrance Group and
Lake Sosin Snell & Associates, 14 April 1997. Results came from a national
survey of 1,000 voters conducted 8-10 April, 1997. The poll's margin of
error is plus or minus 3.1 percent.
52 See Anna Marie Smith, "Why Did Armey
Apologize? Hegemony, Homophobia, and the Religious Right," in New
Right, New Racism: Race and Reaction in the United States and Britain ed.
Amy Elizabeth Ansell (New York, NY: NYU Press, 1997). See also John Whitehead, "Point
of View," in Action: A Publication of the Rutherford Institute, August
1996. In this issue Rutherford Institute president John Whitehead writes: "This
is not to say that Christians and other religious people must condone the
homosexual lifestyle or any other lifestyle they disagree with. But religious
people should be reaching out to these individuals with compassion based
on the example of Jesus Christ."
53 Kenneth D. Wald, James W. Button, Barbara
A. Rienzo, "All Politics Is Local: Analyzing Local Gay Rights Legislation," The
Policy Institute, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1997.
54 Diamond, Not By Politics Alone.
55 Family Research Council press release, "'Homosexual
Rights' Law Overturned in Maine," 10 February 1998.
56 Carey Goldberg, "Maine Voters Repeal
a Law on Gay Rights," The New York Times, 12 February 1998.
57 Riggs Amendment, Appropriations Bill HR 4194,
passed on 29 July 1998, 214 to 212.
58 See Doug Ireland, "The Right Plays the
Gay Card," The Nation, 7/14 September 1998. For a broader international
perspective see Anna Marie Smith, New Right Discourse on Race & Sexuality
(Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
59 See Laurie Goodstein, "Woman Behind
Anti-Gay Ads Sees Christians as Victims," The New York Times, 13 August
60 CWA fundraising appeal, 20 August 1998.
61 Colorado for Family Values fundraising appeal,
24 July 1998.
62 See Surina Khan, "Inside Exodus: A Report
from the Anti-Gay Ministry's 21st National Conference," Gay Community
News, Fall 1996. See also, "Ex-Gays Spark Media Firestorm," Exodus
North America Update, August 1998.
63 For a discussion of the threat of homosexuality
to the dominant culture, see Michael Bronski, The Pleasure Principle: Sex,
Backlash, and the Struggle for Gay Freedom, (New York, NY: St. Martin's
Press, 1998). See also, Urvashi Vaid, Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming
of Gay & Lesbian Liberation (New York, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1995).
64 See USA Today 15 July 1998.
65 National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership
Forum press release, "Black Lesbian and Gay Forum Expresses Outrage
Over Anti-Gay Ad Campaign," 15 July 1998.
66 FRC press release, "Religion and Homosexuality:
Clergy Warn Against Cultural Acceptance of Homosexuality," 10 August
67 Ibid. The release noted that speakers would
include Imam Yusef Saleem, Director of Education at Clara Muhammad School
in Washington, DC; Bishop Harold Ray at Redemptive Life Fellowship in West
Palm Beach, FL; Victor Stanley of Calvary Baptist Church in Woodbridge,
VA; Rev. Robert McFarland of Excel Ministries in Washington, DC; Rev. Thomas
Morrow of the Catholic Archdiocese in Washington, DC; and former lesbian
activist and FRC policy analyst Yvette Cantu.
68 John-David Schramm, telephone interview with
author, 17 May 1998.
70 See the Ex.Ex website, http://members.aol.com/exexgay/
71 See Kyle Young, "The Ex-Files: A Former
Follower Sheds the Light on Ex-Gay Ministries," OutSmart Magazine,
72 Joe Dallas, Desires in Conflict: Answering
the Struggle for Sexual Identity, (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers,
73 See Alan Yang, "From Wrongs to Rights:
Public Opinion on Gay and Lesbian Americans Moves Towards Equality," The
Policy Institute, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1998. See also Alan
Wolfe, One National After All: What Middle Class Americans Really Think
About God/Country/Family/Racism/Welfare/Immigration/ Homosexuality/Work/The
Right/The Left and Each Other (New York, NY: Viking Penguin, 1998).
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