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1 Knight, Robert, at workshop, "The Homosexualizing of America," at the 2nd annual Parents and Friends of Ex-Gays Conference, 6-8 March 1998, McLean, VA.

2 The term "ex-gay" implies that homosexuals have changed their orientation to heterosexuality. However, this is not the case. Leaders of the ex-gay movement coined the term "ex-gay" as a quick way to speak of Christians who may be struggling with their sexual orientation. But the term proved problematic and even leaders of the ex-gay movement have attempted to move away from it because it doesn't accurately describe people involved in the movement. "...ex-gay. Someone fresh out of a gay lifestyle wasn't exactly gay anymore, but they weren't exactly straight yet..." noted ex-gay leader Brad Sargeant in a 1994 issue of the Exodus Standard. See Brad Sargeant, "Word Usage in Ministry to (Ex-Gays) Overcomers," Exodus Standard, 11 No. 3, (1994), 7. The term ex-gay will be used throughout this report (without quotations) despite its disingenuous nature.

3 A series of ads were placed in the national media beginning with an ad in The New York Times on 13 July 1998 followed by an ad on 14 July 1998 in The Washington Post and one in USA Today on 15 July 1998. The ad campaign continued with placements in The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and The Wall Street Journal. The ads were sponsored and paid for by fifteen right-wing organizations: Alliance for Traditional Marriage-Hawaii, American Family Association, Americans for Truth About Homosexuality, Center for Reclaiming America, Christian Family Network, Christian Coalition, Citizens for Community Values, Colorado for Family Values, Concerned Women for America, Coral Ridge Ministries, Family First, Family Research Council, Liberty Counsel, National Legal Foundation and Kerusso Ministries.

4 See "Ex-Gay Ads Spark Media Firestorm: Millions hear about Exodus through Time, Newsweek, `Good Morning America' and a host of other media," Exodus North America Update (August 1998).

5 When discussing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights from the perspective of that community, the more inclusive term lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender is used. However, a review of Christian Right and ex-gay literature shows that the Right does not make specific references to bisexual and transgender people. Thus, when gay rights is defined by the Right, their less inclusive terms, gay rights and/or lesbians and gay men are applied.

6 The term "reparative therapy" is a phrase recently coined by Joseph Nicolosi. See Joseph Nicolosi Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality: A New Clinical Approach (Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc., 1991). See also Charles W. Socarides, M.D. Homosexuality: A Freedom Too Far (Phoenix, AZ: Adam Margrave Books, 1995) and Jack Drescher, "I'm Your Handyman: A History of Reparative Therapies," Journal of Homosexuality 36 (1) (1998).

7 Chip Berlet, "Following the Threads," in New Right, New Racism: Race and Reaction in the United States and Britain ed. Amy Elizabeth Ansell (New York: NYU Press, 1997).

8 For an introduction to various contemporary academic views on how social movements interact with politics, see: Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClung Mueller, eds., Frontiers in Social Movement Theory (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992); Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994); and John Lofland, Social Movement Organizations: Guide to Research on Insurgent Realities, (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1996). For a discussion of the role of religion in shaping social movement strategies, see Christian Smith, "Correcting a Curious Neglect, or Bringing Religions Back In," in Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social-Movement Activism ed. Christian Smith (New York: Routledge, 1996).

9 For a detailed discussion of the Christian Right's theocratic agenda see Frederick Clarkson, Eternal Hostility: The Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1997).

10 Academic Lee Quinby has written about the term coercive purity. See Quinby, "Coercive Purity" in The Year 2000: Essays on the End eds. Charles B. Strozier and Michael Flynn (New York, NY: New York University Press, 1997). See also, Richard K. Fenn, "Rituals of Purification: Renewing Time" in The End of Time: Religion, Ritual, and the Forging of the Soul (Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 1997).

11 Exodus Policy Statement on Homosexuality, Exodus International Fact Sheet, undated.

12 Exodus claims ministries in Brazil, Peru, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, The Netherlands, England, Ireland, France, Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Japan, Philippines, and South Africa. Exodus website, 20 May 1998.

13 Exodus Fact Sheet, supra note 11.

14 See Surina Khan, "Homosexual Healing," Boston Magazine, July 1998. For historical information on Exodus International see One Nation Under God, a video that explores the lives of Michael Busee and Gary Cooper, the two men who co-founded Exodus International and left the anti-gay ministry after falling in love with each other.

15 See Bob Davies and Lori Rentzel, Coming Out of Homosexuality: New Freedom For Men and Women (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993).

16 Dollof, Cyndi, presentation entitled, "Q&A with Cyndi," at the 2nd annual P-Fox conference, 6-8 March 1998.

17 See Martin Duberman, Cures: A Gay Man's Odyssey (New York, NY: Plume, 1991). See also Mel White, Stranger At the Gate: To Be Gay and Christian in America (New York, NY: Plume, 1994).

18 NARTH brochure, "Taking a Stand: For Those Seeking Freedom from Homosexuality," undated. See also "Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality," American Psychological Association, undated.

19 Statement of Policy, NARTH,, 6 May 1997.

20 Charles Socarides, Benjamin Kaufman, Joseph Nicolosi, Jeffrey Satinover and Richard Fitzgibbons, "Don't Forsake Homosexuals Who Want Help," The Wall Street Journal, 9 January 1997. See also Jeffrey Satinover, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996).

21 "Resolution on Treatments to Alter Sexual Orientation: Questions & Answers," American Psychological Association, 14 August 1997, 2. See also, "Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality," American Psychological Association. "Much objective scientific research over the past 35 years shows us that homosexual orientation, in and of itself, is not associated with emotional or social problems. Homosexuality was thought to be a mental illness in the past because mental health professionals and society had biased information about homosexuality since most studies only involved lesbians and gay men in therapy. When researchers examined data about gay people who were not in therapy, the idea that homosexuality was a mental illness was found to be untrue." It is important to note that the American Psychiatric Association includes diagnostic categories for Gender Identity Disorder and Transvestic Fetishism in the fourth edition of the DSM (1994).

22 See Kim I. Mills, "Mission Impossible: Why Reparative Therapy and Ex-Gay Ministries Fail," Human Rights Campaign, August 1998.

23 Jeffrey Satinover, MD, Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, 189. See also Joseph Nicolosi, Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality: A New Clinical Approach.

24 Ex-gay therapists and counselors have been unable to conduct longitudinal studies of clients' sexuality for ethical reasons. It is impossible to conduct this kind of study because it is unethical for therapists to contact clients once they have terminated therapy. Dr. Uriel Meshoulam, member, Scientific Advisory Committee, NARTH, in interview with author. See "New Survey: Gays Can Change," Exodus International Update, July 1997. The article notes: "The study was conducted over two years among nearly 860 individuals struggling to overcome homosexuality and more than 200 psychologists and therapists who treat them. Before treatment, 68 percent of respondents perceived themselves as exclusively or almost entirely homosexual, with another 22 percent stating that they were more homosexual than heterosexual. After treatment, only 13 percent perceived themselves as exclusively or almost entirely homosexual, while 33 percent described themselves as either exclusively or almost entirely heterosexual."

25 Joseph Nicolosi, Ph.D., telephone interview with author, 13 May 1998.

26 Jack Drescher, MD, "I'm Your Handyman."

27 For a historical analysis of the Right's attack on lesbians and gay men see Jean Hardisty, "Constructing Homophobia: Colorado's Right-Wing Attack on Homosexuals," in Eyes Right!: Challenging the Right-Wing Backlash ed. Chip Berlet (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1995). The following books published by the right are useful primary source materials: Tim LaHaye, The Unhappy Gays (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1978); Enrique Rueda, The Homosexual Network (Old Greenwich, CT: The Devin Adair Company, 1982); Michael Schwartz and Enrique Rueda, Gays Aids and You (Old Greenwich, CT: The Devin Adair Company, 1987).

28 Louis Sheldon, "Are Gay Rights Right?" Traditional Values Report, July 1989.

29 For more on Jeremiah Films: Jeremiah Films made the homophobic video Gay Rights, Special Rights, which claims gays and lesbians are degrading the civil rights movement. This video features Senator Trent Lott as the major on-camera figure. Republican Party stalwarts Ed Meese (former attorney general) and William Bennett (former secretary of education) appear along with notorious conspiracists such as David Noebel of Summit Ministries. Noebel has written an entire high school curriculum that claims to expose the secular humanist conspiracy. According to a spokesperson for Jeremiah Films, it made the video and distributes it, but the opening sequence announces the video is from Citizens United for the Preservation of Civil Rights, and the closing sequence refers viewers to the Traditional Values Coalition, while critics claim the video was actually made for and distributed free to Congress by the Springs of Life Ministries, a close ally of the TVC. See: "Traditional Values Coalition," People for the American Way, URL: <>; Frederick Clarkson, "More Bigotry on the Ballot," Freedom Writer, Institute for First Amendment Studies, URL: <>; Deb Price, "As Dole's Likely Successor in Senate, Lott is a Real Worry for Gay Americans," The Detroit News, 22 March 1996, URL: <>; David Deitcher, "The Gay Agenda," Art in America, Issues and Commentary, April 1994, pp. 27-35; additional information from Renée DeLapp, Western States Center.

30 See Chip Berlet, "Who Is Mediating the Storm? Right-Wing Alternative Information Networks," and Ioannis Mookas, "Faultlines: Homophobic Innovation in Gay Rights/Special Rights," in Culture Media, and the Religious Right eds. Linda Kintz & Julia Lesage (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998).

31 Sara Diamond, Not by Politics Alone: The Enduring Influence of the Christian Right (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1998 - forthcoming.)

32 FRC Cultural Director Robert Knight, interview with author, 14 May 1998: "FRC for the last five years has been openly and enthusiastically aiding the ex-gay movement. Initially here in Washington, DC, through Anthony Falzarano's group, Transformation Ex-Gay Ministires, we've given grants to them and publishing assistance and we have helped publicize their availability. I will do my best to speak out on their behalf. We will provide financial aid. We are doing publications and videos to show the importance of ex-gay ministry. And we are going to make a major effort in the schools to turn back the homosexual propaganda that students are getting and show them that that's only one side of the story."

33 See John Paulk with Tony Marco, Not Afraid to Change: The Remarkable Story of How One Man Overcame Homosexuality (Mukilteo, WA: WinePress Publishing, 1998).

34 See FRC press release, "'Once Gay, Always Gay' Not True, Love Offers Real Hope, Knight Says," 10 October 1996. See also, "Anti-Gay Support Group," The Public Eye, Fall/Winter 1996.

35 Carl Wieser, "Gay Marriage on Front Line of America's Culture War," Asheville Citizen Times, Asheville, NC 31 March 1996. Also, Michael Johnston was featured on the Christian Broadcasting Network's "NewsWatch Today" on 15 May, 1996 where he said, "This is the brass ring of the homosexual movement. If they get same-sex marriage, they will get adoptions, they will get forced sex-education in the schools...because you can't call a homosexual couple a marriage and then deny them children."

36 Amendment 2 was a 1992 Colorado ballot initiative that sought to amend the Colorado constitution in order to legally forbid the state, its municipalities, school districts, or agencies from guaranteeing non-discrimination to those with "homosexual, lesbian, or bisexual orientation." The Amendment passed in November 1992, but was subsequently overturned by the US Supreme Court.

37 Marco was a founder and former Director of Communications for Colorado for Family Values. See Tony Marco, "Special Class Protections for Gays: A Question of Behavior and Consequences," 1992; and Tony Marco, "Special Gay Rights Legislation," 1991. Both reports were obtained by the legal team litigating to block Amendment 2 in Colorado. On file at Political Research Associates. See also, John Paulk with Tony Marco, Not Afraid to Change.

38 See Challenging the Ex-Gay Movement: An Information Packet, (published by Political Research Associates, the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, and Equal Partners in Faith: October 1998).

39 American Family Association press release, "`National `Coming out of Homosexuality Day' Helps Homosexuals Leave Lifestyle," undated, included in National Coming Out of Homosexuality Day press packet, October 1997.

40 Diamond, Not By Politics Alone, 165.

41 In Not By Politics Alone, Diamond cites "Once Gay Always Gay," Focus on the Family (March 1994), 2-3.

42 Diamond, Not By Politics Alone, 165.

43 "Survey Reveals Strong Christian Nationalism," Freedom Writer Magazine, September 1996.

44 See Skipp Porteous, "Reclaiming America for Christ," Freedom Writer Magazine, March/April 1997.

45 See "Overview of Religious Attitudes Toward Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender People," prepared by The Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and collected from The Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance,

46 Letter from US Catholic Bishops, 1997.

47 "Overview of Religious Attitudes Toward Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender People."

48 Statement from Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Religious Action Center.

49 Letter from the US Catholic Bishops, 1997.

50 The full list of churches and religious organizations that endorsed the Employment Non-Discrimination Act includes: The American Ethical Union, American Friends Service Committee, American Jewish Congress, American Jewish Committee, Church of the Brethren, Church Women United, Dignity/USA, Episcopal Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Hadassah, WZOA, The Interfaith Alliance, Jewish Women International (formerly B'nai B'rith Women), Lutheran Office for Governmental Affairs - Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, National Council of Churches, National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA, National Council of Jewish Women, National Council of La Raza, North Georgia United Methodists, Presbyterian Church USA, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Religious Action Center, Unitarian Universalist Association, United Church of Christ (Office for Church and Society),United Methodist Church, General Board of Church and Society, Women of Reform Judaism, The Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, Young Women's Christian Association. Compiled by Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, 1996.

51 See "Faith and Fairness: People of Faith Support Protecting Americans from Job Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation," a poll by the Human Rights Campaign on the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, 1996. Results came from a national survey of 1,007 voters conducted 5-8 November 1996 for the Human Rights Campaign by the polling firm of Greenberg Research Inc. The poll's margin of error is plus or minus 3.1 percent. See also "Americans Strongly Support the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) and Equal Job Opportunities for Gay and Lesbian People", a poll conducted for the Human Rights Campaign by the Tarrance Group and Lake Sosin Snell & Associates, 14 April 1997. Results came from a national survey of 1,000 voters conducted 8-10 April, 1997. The poll's margin of error is plus or minus 3.1 percent.

52 See Anna Marie Smith, "Why Did Armey Apologize? Hegemony, Homophobia, and the Religious Right," in New Right, New Racism: Race and Reaction in the United States and Britain ed. Amy Elizabeth Ansell (New York, NY: NYU Press, 1997). See also John Whitehead, "Point of View," in Action: A Publication of the Rutherford Institute, August 1996. In this issue Rutherford Institute president John Whitehead writes: "This is not to say that Christians and other religious people must condone the homosexual lifestyle or any other lifestyle they disagree with. But religious people should be reaching out to these individuals with compassion based on the example of Jesus Christ."

53 Kenneth D. Wald, James W. Button, Barbara A. Rienzo, "All Politics Is Local: Analyzing Local Gay Rights Legislation," The Policy Institute, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1997.

54 Diamond, Not By Politics Alone.

55 Family Research Council press release, "'Homosexual Rights' Law Overturned in Maine," 10 February 1998.

56 Carey Goldberg, "Maine Voters Repeal a Law on Gay Rights," The New York Times, 12 February 1998.

57 Riggs Amendment, Appropriations Bill HR 4194, passed on 29 July 1998, 214 to 212.

58 See Doug Ireland, "The Right Plays the Gay Card," The Nation, 7/14 September 1998. For a broader international perspective see Anna Marie Smith, New Right Discourse on Race & Sexuality (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

59 See Laurie Goodstein, "Woman Behind Anti-Gay Ads Sees Christians as Victims," The New York Times, 13 August 1998.

60 CWA fundraising appeal, 20 August 1998.

61 Colorado for Family Values fundraising appeal, 24 July 1998.

62 See Surina Khan, "Inside Exodus: A Report from the Anti-Gay Ministry's 21st National Conference," Gay Community News, Fall 1996. See also, "Ex-Gays Spark Media Firestorm," Exodus North America Update, August 1998.

63 For a discussion of the threat of homosexuality to the dominant culture, see Michael Bronski, The Pleasure Principle: Sex, Backlash, and the Struggle for Gay Freedom, (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1998). See also, Urvashi Vaid, Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay & Lesbian Liberation (New York, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1995).

64 See USA Today 15 July 1998.

65 National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum press release, "Black Lesbian and Gay Forum Expresses Outrage Over Anti-Gay Ad Campaign," 15 July 1998.

66 FRC press release, "Religion and Homosexuality: Clergy Warn Against Cultural Acceptance of Homosexuality," 10 August 1998.

67 Ibid. The release noted that speakers would include Imam Yusef Saleem, Director of Education at Clara Muhammad School in Washington, DC; Bishop Harold Ray at Redemptive Life Fellowship in West Palm Beach, FL; Victor Stanley of Calvary Baptist Church in Woodbridge, VA; Rev. Robert McFarland of Excel Ministries in Washington, DC; Rev. Thomas Morrow of the Catholic Archdiocese in Washington, DC; and former lesbian activist and FRC policy analyst Yvette Cantu.

68 John-David Schramm, telephone interview with author, 17 May 1998.

69 Ibid.

70 See the Ex.Ex website,

71 See Kyle Young, "The Ex-Files: A Former Follower Sheds the Light on Ex-Gay Ministries," OutSmart Magazine, January 1997.

72 Joe Dallas, Desires in Conflict: Answering the Struggle for Sexual Identity, (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 1991), 10.

73 See Alan Yang, "From Wrongs to Rights: Public Opinion on Gay and Lesbian Americans Moves Towards Equality," The Policy Institute, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1998. See also Alan Wolfe, One National After All: What Middle Class Americans Really Think About God/Country/Family/Racism/Welfare/Immigration/ Homosexuality/Work/The Right/The Left and Each Other (New York, NY: Viking Penguin, 1998).

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