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Criminalizing the Reservation and Movements for Sovereignty, pp 69-72



1  Luana Ross, Inventing the Savage: The Social Construction of Native American Criminality (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998), 3.

2  Rebecca L. Robins, "Self-Determination and Subordination: The Past, Present, and Future of American Indian Governance," in M. Annette Jaimes, ed. The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance (Boston: South End Press, 1992), 87-121, 89-90.

3  Bureau of Justice Statistics, "American Indians and Crime," February 1999. See http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/aic.pr (accessed July 3, 2003).

4  Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Jails in Indian Country, 2002," November 2003. See http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/jic02.pdf (accessed February 2, 2005).

5  U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, A Quiet Crisis: Federal Funding and Unmet Needs in Indian Country, July 2003, (Washington DC: U.S. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights), 68. Originally cited in Eric Hensen and Jonathan B. Taylor, Native America at the New Millennium, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Project on American Indian Economic Development, November 2002), p. 139.

6  Ibid.

7  Dian Million, "Policing Indian Country." Social Justice, A Journal of Crime, Conflict & World Order 27 (3): 112.

8  Ibid.

9  Bureau of Justice Statistics, "American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002," December 2004. See http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/aic02.pdf (accessed February 2, 2005).

10  Ibid.

11  U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 68.

12  U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 68.

13  U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 68.

14  See South Dakota Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Native Americans in South Dakota: An Erosion of Confidence in the Justice System (Washington DC: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights 2000). Available online at http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/sac/sd0300/main.htm.

15  Ibid.

16  See http://www.ussc.gov/PRESS/rel0502.htm.

17  See http://www.uscourts.gov/ttb/jan04ttb/vi/.

18  Steven J. Kalar, et al., "A Blakeley Primer: An End to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines?" The Champion Magazine, 2004. http://www.nacdl.org/public.nsf/championarticles/a0408p10?opendocument .

19  Families Against Mandatory Minimums, "Understanding Booker and Fanfan: Federal sentencing guidelines are advisory, but mandatory minimums still stand." See http://www.famm.org/nr_sentencing_news_bookerealert_1_13_05.htm (accessed February 2, 2005).

20  Sentencing Project, "Supreme Court Decision in Booker and Fanfan Dramatically Alters Federal Sentencing System." See http://www.sentencingproject.org/booker.cfm (accessed February 2, 2005).

21  Sentencing Project, "Supreme Court Decision in Booker and Fanfan Dramatically Alters Federal Sentencing System." See http://www.sentencingproject.org/booker.cfm (accessed February 2, 2005).

22  Steven J. Kalar, et al., "A Blakeley Primer: An End to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines?" The Champion Magazine, 2004. http://www.nacdl.org/public.nsf/championarticles/a0408p10?opendocument.

23  Erik Luna, "Reprieve on Sentencing Guidelines?" 2004. http://www.cato.org/dailys/08-12-04.html.

24  See, for example: "Sovereignty Clarified." http://ronan.net/~morris/page12.html (accessed July 13, 2004).

25  Darrel Smith, "Why Indians are Second Class Citizens," no date. http://www.citizensalliance.org (accessed July 21, 2004).

26  Scott Peterman, "Indian Tribal Sovereignty," September 18, 2000. http://www.upstate-citizens.org/Sovereignty.pdf (accessed July 28, 2004).

27  Cited in Peterman, "Indian Tribal Sovereignty."

28  Oneida Indian Nation.. "Inherent Sovereignty," 2000. http://www.onieda-nation.net/inherentsov.html (accessed July 21, 2004).

29  Smith, "Why Indians are Second Class Citizens.".

30  Ibid.

31  Cited in Peterman, "Indian Tribal Sovereignty."

32  Ibid.

33  Upstate Citizens for Equality, "Sovereignty." no date. http://www.upstate-citizens.org/sovereignty.htm (accessed July 28, 2004).

34  Roland Morris, "Roland J. Morris, Sr.," no date. http://www.ronan.net/~morris/page1.html (accessed July 13, 2004).

35  Ibid.

36  Ibid.

37  Rudolph Ryser, "Anti-Indian Movement on the Tribal Frontier" (Olympia, WA: Center for World Indigenous Studies Occasional Paper #16, June 1992 Revised Edition).

38  Darrel Smith, "The Tragedy of Tribal Sovereignty," no date. http://www.citizensalliance.org/links/pages/fact%20sheets/Tragedy.html (accessed July 22, 2004).

39  Julie Shortridge, Portions of "Sovereignty and Civil Rights," no date. http://ronan.net/~morris/page12.html (accessed July 13, 2004).

40  Ward Churchill and Glen Morris, "Key Indian Laws and Cases," in Jaimes, The State of Native America, 13-21.

41  Shortridge, "Sovereignty and Civil Rights."

42  See, for example, CERA and Upstate Citizens for Equality.



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