~1 This list was compiled by the authors from statements made at the Values Voters Summit in Washington, DC, September 21-24, 2006, which they attended.
~2 Dominionism is a tendency within the Christian Right to assert that Christians are mandated by God to take control of secular political institutions. See: Frederick Clarkson, “The Rise of Dominionism: Remaking America as a Christian Nation,” The Public Eye Magazine, Winter 2005; Michelle Goldberg, Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006); Chip Berlet, 2006, “The Christian Right, Dominionism, and Theocracy,” The Public Eye online, http://www.publiceye.org/christian_right/dominionism.htm.
~3 Robert P. Jones and Dan Cox, American Values Survey: Initial Report, Center for American Values, a project of People for the American Way (PFAW), (Washington, DC: PFAW, 2006).
~4 John C. Green and Mark Silk, “Why Moral Values Did Count,” Religion in the News, 2005, (Spring), http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/csrpl/RINVol8No1/WhyMoral%20ValuesDidCount.htm; Geoffrey C. Layman, and John C. Green, “Wars and Rumors of Wars: The Contexts of Cultural Conflict in American Political Behavior,” British Journal of Political Science 36(1), (January 2006): 61-89.
~5 Interview with John C. Green, October 10, 2006.
~6 Ruy Teixeira, Center for American Progress, Public Opinion Watch, June 29, 2005, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2005/06/b856667.html; Marisa A, Abrajano, Micharl Alvarez, and Jonathan Nagler, “The Hispanic Vote in the 2004 Presidential Election: Insecurity and Moral Concerns,” paper, December 22, 2005, http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/politics/faculty/nagler/abrajano_alvarez_nagler.pdf; Bob Cusack, “Bush seeks ‘major shift’ with blacks,” The Hill, February 9, 2005, http://www.hillnews.com/thehill/export/TheHill/News/Frontpage/020905/bush.html.
~7 Robert E. Denton, Jr., “Religion and the 2004 Presidential Campaign.” In American Behavioral Scientist 49(1), (September 2005): 11-31; citing The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, “How the Faithful Voted: Political Alignments & the Religious Divide in Election 2004” Nov. 17, 2004, http://pewforum.org/events/index.php?EventID=64; David E. Campbell and J. Quin Monson. “The Religion Card: Evangelicals, Catholics, and Gay Marriage in the 2004 Presidential Election,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Sept. 1-4, 2005, http://www.nd.edu/~dcampbe4/RELIGION CARD.pdf; Robert E. Denton, Jr. “Religion, Evangelicals, and Moral Issues in the 2004 Presidential Campaign,” in The 2004 Presidential Campaign: A Communication Perspective, ed. Robert E. Denton, Jr. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005); John C. Green, Mark J. Rozell and Clyde Wilcox, eds., The Values Campaign? The Christian Right and the 2004 Elections (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2006).
~8 Adelle Banks, “With Election Looming, ‘Values Voters’ Are Back in the Spotlight,” Religion News Service, Wednesday, September 20, 2006, http://www.presbyterianchurch.org/pcnews/2006/06482.htm.
~9 Robert P. Jones, Ph.D. and Dan Cox, American Values Survey: Initial Report, Center for American Values, a project of People for the American Way (PFAW), (Washington, DC: PFAW, 2006.
~10 Mike Allen and James Carney, “The G.O.P.’s Secret Weapon,” Time Magazine, October 9, 2006, online edition, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1541295,00.html.
~11 Rose French, 2006, “Evangelical voters more jaded in 2006,” Associated Press, September 22, http://www.abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory?id=2477099; Chris Kromm, “Religious Right Falters on Eve of Elections,” 2006, http://southernstudies.org/facingsouth/2006/09/religious-right-falters-on-eve-of.asp; Paul Krugman, “Things Fall Apart,” op-ed column, The New York Times, October 2, 2006, http://select.nytimes.com/2006/10/02/opinion/02krugman.html.
~12 John C. Green and Mark Silk, “Why Moral Values Did Count,” Religion in the News, (Spring 2005), http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/csrpl/RINVol8No1/WhyMoral%20ValuesDidCount.htm.
~13 Geoffrey C. Layman, and John C. Green, “Wars and Rumors of Wars: The Contexts of Cultural Conflict in American Political Behavior,” British Journal of Political Science (36)1, (January 2006), pp 61-89, quote from p. 61.
~14 Greg Goldin, “How the Christian Right is Building from Below to Take Over Above,” The Village Voice, April 6, 1993, at http://www.theocracywatch.org/taking_over_fifteen_percent.htm.
~15 Esther Kaplan, “Onward Christian Soldiers: The Religious Right’s Sense of Siege is Fueling A Resurgence,” The Nation, July 5, 2004. See also Kaplan, With God on Their Side: George W. Bush and the Christian Right (New York: New Press, 2005).
~16 Didi Herman, The Antigay Agenda: Orthodox Vision and the Christian Right (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).
~17 David D. Kirkpatrick, “The 2004 Campaign: Evangelical Christians--Warily, a Religious Leader Lifts His Voice in Politics, The New York Times, May 13, 2004, A22, Online archive.
~18 Scott Helman, 2006, “Healey Campaign Uses Data Strategy,” Boston Globe, October 2, pp. B1, B3.
~19 Mike Allen and James Carney, “The G.O.P.’s Secret Weapon, Time Magazine, October 9, 2006, online edition, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1541295,00.html.
~20 David Espo, “Dems Positioned to Challenge GOP Control,” The Associated Press, October 7, 2006, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/07/AR2006100701092.html.
~21 Adelle Banks, “With Election Looming, ‘Values Voters’ Are Back in the Spotlight,” Religion News Service, Wednesday, September 20, 2006, http://www.presbyterianchurch.org/pcnews/2006/06482.htm.
~22 Katha Pollitt, “Earthly Rewards for the Christian Voter,” Subject to Debate column, The Nation, December 6, 2004, http://www.thenation.com/doc/20041206/pollitt.
~23 Notes from attending the Values Voters Summit.
~24 MSNBC, “White House Logs Show GOP Activists’ Access: Conservative Norquist Visited 97 Times Between 2001 And 2006,” Sept 21, 2006, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14934024/.
~25 Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States (New York: Guilford Press, 1998); Jean Hardisty, Mobilizing Resentment: Conservative Resurgence from the John Birch Society to the Promise Keepers (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999); William Martin, With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America (New York: Broadway Books, 1996).
~26 Sara Diamond, “The Personal Is Political: The Role of Cultural Projects in the Mobilization of the Christian Right,” in Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and Politics, ed. Amy E. Ansell (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998), pp. 41-55.
~27 Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guilford Press, 2000).
~28 Jean V. Hardisty, Mobilizing Resentment: Conservative Resurgence from the John Birch Society to the Promise Keepers (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999).
~29 Amy Fagan, “‘Values voters’ told to know the enemy,” The Washington Times
September 23, 2006, http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20060922-115014-8078r.htm.
~30 For more information about the Values Voter Summit from reporters and analysts who attended the event, see: Max Blumenthal, “With the Party of Dobson,” The Nation online, September 27, 2006, http://www.thenation.com/doc/20061009/party_of_dobson; Sarah Posner, “The Religious Right Goes to Washington,” Alternet, September 30, 2006, http://www.alternet.org/story/42279; Bruce Wilson, “Politicizing Churches: Full Court Press,” Talk2Action, September28, 2006, http://www.talk2action.org/story/2006/9/28/194217/455; American United for Separation of Church and State, “‘Values Voter Summit’ Supports GOP, Americans United Charges,” Friday, September 22, 2006, www.au.org/site/News2?abbr=pr&page=NewsArticle&id=8559; Americans United for Separation of Church and State, “Speaker At ‘Values Voter Summit’ Recommends Church-Based Organizing Plan Based On Deception,” September 25, 2006, http://www.au.org/site/News2?abbr=pr&page=NewsArticle&id=8563; People for the American Way, Rightwing Watch online, Values Voters Summit collection, 2006, http://www.rightwingwatch.org/values_voter_su/index.html; “Clark,” Defcon, Campaign to Defend the Constitution, online blog, Septmeber 22, 2006, “Off-To-See-The-Wizard,” http://defconblog.org/2006/09/off-to-see-the-wizard; Chip Berlet, “New Front in the Culture War: Gay Rights Sacrificed on the Altar of the Mid-Term Elections,” September 25, 2006, http://www.talk2action.org/story/2006/9/25/191346/717; Bill Lee, “Family Research Council Action: 2006 Values Voter Summit Series,” September 30, 2006 http://sailerfraud.blogspot.com/2006_09_01_sailerfraud_archive.html; Eric Appleman, collection of photos and reports, September 22, 2006, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/more092206b.html; transcripts of some speeches include Romney, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/romney092206.html, Huckabee, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/huckabee092206.html; Allen, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/allen092206spt.html, and Brownback, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/brownback092206spt.html.
~31 Institute for First Amendment Studies, “Religioius Leaders Denounce Wildon’s Anti-Semitism,” Freedom Writer, June/July/August 1989, at http://www.publiceye.org/ifas/fw/8906/wildmon.html.
~32 Blumenthal, “With the Party of Dobson.”
~33 While a few scholars have studied the relationship between militant Islamic movements and neofascism, the use of the term “Islamofascism” or Islamic Fascism represents a form of political propaganda. See: Chip Berlet, “Terminology: Use with Caution.” In Fascism, Vol. 5, Critical Concepts in Political Science, ed. Roger Griffin and Matthew Feldman (New York, NY: Routledge, 2003), online draft version at http://www.publiceye.org/frontpage/911/clerical-911.html.
~34 Quotes in this section are based on Democracy in Action, Eric Appleman, transcript of the Romney speech at FRC Action’s Values Voter Summit, September 22, 2006, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/romney092206.html. See also: Stuart Shepard, “Values Voters Energized for November,” Focus on the Family, CitizenLink, September 25, 2006, http://www.family.org/cforum/extras/a0042081.cfm
~35 McKissic’s remarks are quoted in Rob Boston, “Is The Antichrist Gay? ‘Values Voters’ Bash Gays At Conference” Church & State, forthcoming.
~36 People for the American Way, “Values Voter Summit: Is the Anti-Christ Gay?,” Right Wing Watch online, September 24, 2006, http://www.rightwingwatch.org/2006/09/values_voter_su_13.html.
~37 Transcribed from a recording of this presentation obtained by Political Research Associates.
~38 Transcribed from a recording of this presentation obtained by Political Research Associates.
~39 Bruce Wilson, “Bill Bennett, God-Man: ‘When 4 Americans Are Hung.... You Level The City,’” September 23, 2006, http://www.talk2action.org/story/2006/9/23/1141/19091.
~40 Jim Brown, “Dobson, Bauer Comment on ‘War on Terror,’” Agape Press, September 29, 2006, http://headlines.agapepress.org/archive/9/292006g.asp.
~41 Frank James, “James Dobson: ‘Millions of Muslims Want to Kill Us,’” Chicago Tribune blog, September 23, 2006, http://newsblogs.chicagotribune.com/news_theswamp/2006/09/james_dobson_mi.html. See also, Amy Fagan, “‘Values voters’ told to know the enemy,” The Washington Times, September 23, 2006, http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20060922-115014-8078r.htm.
~42 Brown, “Dobson, Bauer Comment on ‘War on Terror.’”
~44 Blumenthal, “With the Party of Dobson.”
~45 Brown, “Dobson, Bauer Comment on ‘War on Terror.’”
~46 Blumenthal, “With the Party of Dobson.”
~47 Cass R. Sunstein, “Mortal Combat: By Stoking Fear, Republicans Gain an Edge Over Democrats,” The New Republic online, August 23, 2006, http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=w060821&s=sunstein082306.
~48 Andrew Gumbel, “Something Rotten in the State of Florida,” Common Dreams, September 29, 2004, originally from The Independent, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0929-26.htm.
~49 “Katherine Harris,” interview, Florida Baptist Witness, August 24, 2006, http://www.floridabaptistwitness.com/6298.article.
~50 Clinton E. Arnold, Powers of Darkness: Principalities & Powers in Paul’s Letters, (Downers Grove Intervarsity Press, 1992); Sara Diamond, Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right (Boston: South End Press, 1989).
~51 Pete Winn, “‘Stand for The Family’ to Encourage Values Voters,” CitizenLink, Focus on the Family, posted September 29, 2006, http://www.family.org/cforum/extras/a0041648.cfm; Staff Reports, “Pittsburgh Site of ‘Stand for the Family’ Rally,” CitizenLink, Focus on the Family, posted September 21, 2006, http://www.family.org/cforum/news/a0042040.cfm; Jessica Stollings, “‘Stand for the Family’ Rallies Kick-Off Next Month,” Family News in Focus, Focus on the Family, posted August 21, 2006, http://www.family.org/cforum/fnif/news/a0041707.cfm.
~52 Blumenthal, “With the Party of Dobson.” http://www.thenation.com/doc/20061009/party_of_dobson.
~53 Jessica Stollings, “Stand for the Family Rally in Pittsburgh,” Family News in Focus, Focus on the Family, posted September 21, 2006, http://www.family.org/cforum/fnif/news/a0042038.cfm.
~56 Rev. Dr. George F. Regas, “If Jesus Debated Senator Kerry And President Bush,” sermon, All Saints Church, Pasadena, California, October 31, 2004, http://www.allsaints-pas.org/pdf/(10-31-04)%20If%20Jesus%20Debated.pdf.
~57 Hardisty, Mobilizing Resentment, p. 74. Susan Faludi, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 241-247, (on ironies concerning woman leaders, pp. 298, 324, 455); and Martin, With God on Our Side: pp. 161-167.
~58 One of the authors attended the workshop.
~59 David D. Kirkpatrick, “Christian Conservatives Look to Reenergize Base,” New York Times, September 25, 2006. http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=FB0E10FE34550C768EDDA00894DE404482.
~60 Brandie M. Jefferson, “Liberty Sunday Hits Gay Marriages: Romney in Boston Sees Religious Expression Threat,” the Associated Press, Worcester Telegram & Gazette online, posted Monday, October 16, 2006, http://www.telegram.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20061016/NEWS/610160388. Event organizers made the dubious claim that they “might have reached close to 80 million people” with the broadcast. Maria Cramer, “Broadcast condemns same-sex marriage,” Boston Globe 10/16/06 p.B1.
~61 The Old North Church itself objected to the use of the image of its building to promote the event. See Michael Paulson, “Group to Rally Opposition to Gay Marriage: Romney to Speak at Event Targeting Evangelical Voters,” Boston Globe, October 15, 2006, http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2006/10/15/group_to_rally_opposition_to_gay_marriage/.
~62 Nancy Christopher, “One: Man, Women-In defense of marriage and religious liberty” Sky Angel, Liberty Sunday articles, http://www.skyangel.com/_FileLibrary/File/0610_Liberty_Sunday_Article.pdf?IdS=0012AD-7684D50&.
~63 Nancy Christopher, “Former self-professed liberal warns against the promotion of homosexuality to our youth: Two specials examine the teaching of homosexuality in our schools,” Sky Angel, Liberty Sunday articles, http://www.skyangel.com/_FileLibrary/File/0610_Liberty_Sunday_Article.pdf?IdS=0012AD-7684D50&.
~64 CJ Doyle, transcribed from an audio recording. Transcription also available from Family Research Council here: www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=LH06J04&f=FR03G04.
~65 Raymond Flynn, transcribed from an audio recording. Transcription also available from Family Research Council here: www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=LH06J04&f=FR03G04.
~66 Bishop Wellington Boone transcription also available from Family Research Council here: www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=LH06J04&f=FR03G04.
~68 Chip Berlet “Justice Everyday,” DEFCON, Campaing to Defend the Constitution, January 6, 2006, http://defconblog.org/2006/01/justice-everyday.
~69 George Lakoff, Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,  2002); _____, Don’t Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate (White River Jct., VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2004).
~70 Adapted from Chip Berlet, “Prophecy Belief and Constitutional Boundaries,” blog entry, DEFCON, Campaign to Defend the Constitution, October 14, 2006, http://defconblog.org/2005/10/prophecy-belief-and-constitutional-boundaries.
~71 Romney, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/romney092206.html; Huckabee, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/huckabee092206.html; Allen, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/allen092206.html; Brownback, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/brownback092206.html; and Gingrich, http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/gingrich092306b.html.
~72 Jean Hardisty, Mobilizing Resentment: Conservative Resurgence from the John Birch Society to the Promise Keepers (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999) p. 74. Susan Faludi, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (New York: Doubleday, 1992) pp. 241-247, (on ironies concerning woman leaders, pp. 298, 324, 455); and William Martin, With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America (New York: Broadway Books, 1996) pp. 161-167. On conservative women generally, see Rebecca E. Klatch, Women of the New Right (Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 1987); Elinor Burkett, The Right Women: A Journey Through the Heart of Conservative America (New York: Touchstone, 1998).
~73 “The New Right’s Plan for ‘82,” Washington, D.C. City Paper, November 27, 1981.
~74 The CNP executive committee in 1988 was composed of: Ambassador Holland H. Coors; Rich De Vos; Thomas F. Ellis; Edwin J. Feulner, Jr.; Nelson Bunker Hunt; Robert H. Krieble; Connaught Marshner; Howard Phillips; Judge Paul Pressler; Ed Prince; Michael A. Valerio; Richard A. Viguerie, and Paul Weyrich; this list from the program brochure, CNP meeting August 12-13, 1988, New Orleans, Louisiana, on file at PRA. On CNP generally, see David D. Kirkpatrick, “Club of the Most Powerful Gathers in Strictest Privacy,” New York Times (August 28, 2004): 10, online archive; Russ Bellant, “The Council for National Policy: Stealth Leadership of the Radical Right,” Front Lines Research, Planned Parenthood, 1:2 (August 1994), online archive; _____, The Coors Connection: How Coors Family Philanthropy Undermines Democratic Pluralism (Boston: South End Press/PRA, 1991), pp. 26-27; 36-46; Jeremy Leaming and Rob Boston, “Behind Closed Doors: Who Is The Council For National Policy And What Are They Up To? And Why Don’t They Want You To Know?" Church & State, Americans United for Separation of Church and State, (October 2004), http://www.au.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=6949&abbr=cs_
~75 Frederick Clarkson, “Secret International Antiabortion Political Training Institute in the U.S.,” Talk2Action, September 21, 2006, http://www.talk2action.org/story/2006/9/21/44053/9693.
~76 Onalee McGraw, Secular Humanism and the Schools: The Issue Whose Time has Come, pamphlet (Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, 1976).
~77 Margaret Quigley, unpublished working paper, 1992.
~78 Chip Berlet and Margaret Quigley, “Theocracy & White Supremacy: Behind the Culture War to Restore Traditional Values,” in Eyes Right! Challenging the Right Wing Backlash, ed. Chip Berlet (Boston: South End Press, 1995), pp. 15-43, originally published in The Public Eye magazine, December 1992, pp. 1-7, online at http://www.publiceye.org/magazine/v06n1/culwar.html; Linda Kintz, Between Jesus and the Market: The Emotions that Matter in Right-Wing America (Durham, NC: Duke University Press,1997); Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guilford Press, 2000). Ann Burlein, Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002).
~79 Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America, pp. 200-202.
~80 Ibid. pp. 175-185, 196-198, 339.
~81 William P. Hoar, “Parents Revolt: When Textbooks are Propaganda,” pamphlet, circa 1974, reprint of article in American Opinion magazine, (John Birch Society), November 1974, pp. 1-16, quotes from p. 1.
~82 Michelle Goldberg, Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006), 10-11, 160-164; Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America, pp. 339; Council for National Policy, “Presentation of Thomas Jefferson Ward to Dr. Schwarz, Christian Anti-Communism Crusade: CNP-21,” videotape, (by the author, 1987), in the archive of Political Research Associates; CNP lists colleted by Institute for First Amendment Studies, and others, archived at Public Eye website, Political Research Associates (PRA), http://www.publiceye.org/ifas/cnp/awards.html; Phyllis Schlafly, “Global Governance: The Quiet War Against American Independence,” videotape, (Alton, IL: Eagle Forum, 1997), distributed by Jeremiah Films, Hemet, CA.
~83 Romney speech: http://www.gwu.edu/~action/2008/vv0906/romney092206.html.
~84 Family Research Council website, http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=WL06I18, accessed September 26, 2006.
~85 Dennis Prager, “See No Evil: 9/11 and the American Left, five years later,” Citizen magazine, Focus on the Family, September 2006, pp. 18-21.
~86 Max Blumenthal, “With the Party of Dobson,” The Nation online, September 27, 2006, http://www.thenation.com/doc/20061009/party_of_dobson.
~87 Institute for First Amendment Studies, “Religioius Leaders Denounce Wildon’s Anti-Semitism,” Freedom Writer, June/July/August 1989, at http://www.publiceye.org/ifas/fw/8906/wildmon.html.
~88 Pete Winn, “Armey Lashes Out Against Dobson, Values Voters,” Focus on the Family, Citizen Link, September 28, 2006, http://www.family.org/cforum/extras/a0042141.cfm.
~90 Gordon W. Allport, The Nature of Prejudice (Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1954); Lise NoŽl, Intolerance: A General Survey, translated by Arnold Bennett (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994); James A. Aho, This Thing of Darkness: A Sociology of the Enemy (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1994); Colette Guillaumin, Racism, Sexism, Power and Ideology (London: Routledge, 1995); Elisabeth Young-Bruehl The Anatomy of Prejudices (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1996).
~91 Faith in America, “Religious groups in some parts of the world…,” flyer, 2006, http://www.faithinamerica.info/pdf/faithValuesProof_8.pdf.
~92 Mason, Killing for Life; Lee Quinby, Anti-Apocalypse: Exercises in Genealogical Criticism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1994). See also, Kathleen Stewart and Susan Harding, “Bad Endings: American Apocalypsis,” Annual Review of Anthropology 28 (1999): 285-310; Charles B. Strozier, Apocalypse: On the Psychology of Fundamentalism in America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994); Barbara A. Rossing, The Rapture Exposed: The Message of Hope in the Book of Revelation (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2004).
~93 The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals, by the author, October 2006, http://pewforum.org/surveys/pentecostal; Laurie Goodstein, “Conservative Churches Grew Fastest in 1990’s, Report Says.” New York Times, September 18, 2002, A22; based on research by the Glenmary Research Center, http://www.glenmary.org/grc/default.htm; Chip Berlet, “Religion and Politics in the United States: Nuances You Should Know,” The Public Eye, Political Research Associates, Summer 2003, pp. 13-16, http://www.publiceye.org/magazine/v17n2/evangelical-demographics.html.
~94 The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, Spirit and Power.
~95 Ibid., iv-v, p.1.
~96 Ibid., p. 2.
~97 Ibid., p. 9.
~98 Baylor Institute for the Study of Religion, American Piety in the 21st Century: New Insights to the Depth and Complexity of Religion in the US (Selected Findings from the Baylor Religion Survey), by the author, September 2006, http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/33304.pdf. Find more Baylor Religion Survey data at The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), http://thearda.com.
~99 Institute on Religion and Democracy (IRD), http://www.ird-renew.org. See articles critical of IRD: Fred Clarkson, “The Battle for the Mainline Churches,” The Public Eye, Summer 2006, pp. 10-14, http://www.publiceye.org/magazine/v20n1/clarkson_battle.html; _____, “‘Liberal’ Church Ad Attacked by Rightwing Agency,” April 06, 2006, http://www.talk2action.org/story/2006/4/6/133738/5936.
~100 Michael A. Fletcher, “‘Values’ Decline As Issue In Ohio’: Economic Woes Boost Democrats,” Washington Post, October 11, 2006, A01.
~101 For examples, see Frank, What’s the Matter with Kansas? pp. 160-161, 205, 213, 226, 238-251.
~102 Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America, pp. 1-18. See also Margaret Canovan, Populism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981); Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History (New York: Basic Books, 1995).
~103 Hardisty, 1999, Mobilizing Resentment.
~104 Chip Berlet, “Mapping the Political Right: Gender and Race Oppression in Right-Wing Movements” in Home-Grown Hate: Gender and Organized Racism, ed. Abby Ferber (New York: Routledge, 2004), pp.19-47, list from pp. 24-25. See also, Joanne Ricca, no date, “Politics in America: The Right Wing Attack on the American Labor Movement,” Wisconsin State AFL-CIO, http://www.wisaflcio.org/political_action/rightwing.htm; Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America, pp. 6-13.
~105 To trace the chronological evolution of the idea of populism as a style of politics, see: Ernesto Laclau, Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory: Capitalism, Fascism, Populism (London: NLB/Atlantic Highlands Humanities Press, 1977); Canovan, Populism; Peter Fritzsche, Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990); Hans-Georg Betz, Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe (New York: St. Martins Press, 1994); Kazin, The Populist Persuasion; Hans-Georg Betz and Stefan Immerfall, eds., The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998); Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America .
~106 Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America; Chip Berlet, “When Alienation Turns Right: Populist Conspiracism, the Apocalyptic Style, and Neofascist Movements,” in Trauma, Promise, and the Millennium: The Evolution of Alienation, ed. Lauren Langman and Devorah Kalekin Fishman (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), pp. 115-144; Brenda E. Brasher and Chip Berlet, “Imagining Satan: Modern Christian Right Print Culture as an Apocalyptic Master Frame.” Paper presented at the Conference on Religion and the Culture of Print in America, Center for the History of Print Culture in Modern America, University of Wisconsin–Madison, September 10-11, 2004; Chip Berlet, “Dances with Devils: How Apocalyptic and Millennialist Themes Influence Right Wing Scapegoating and Conspiracism,” The Public Eye, Fall 1998, pp. 1, 2-22.
~107 Linda Kintz, Between Jesus and the Market: The Emotions that Matter in Right-Wing America (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), pp. 8-9; citing O’Leary.
~108 Canovan, Populism, pp. 54-55; Kazin, The Populist Persuasion, pp. 35-36, 52-54, 143-144; Catherine McNicol Stock, Rural Radicals: Righteous Rage in the American Grain (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), pp. 15-86; Berlet and Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America, pp. 4-6.
~109 Stephen Kantrowitz, Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2000), pp. 4-6, 109-114, 153.
~110 Dan T. Carter, The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995); Thomas Byrne Edsall and Mary D. Edsall, Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics (New York: Norton, 1991). See also Clarence Y. H. Lo, Small Property Versus Big Government: Social Origins of the Property Tax Revolt (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
~111 Lucy A. Williams, Decades of Distortion: The Right’s 30-year Assault on Welfare (Somerville, MA: Political Research Associates, 1997), http://www.publiceye.org/welfare/Decades-of-Distortion.html.
~112 Bill Fletcher, Jr., “Race, the Democratic Party, and Electoral Strategy,” The Black Commentator 201 (October 12, 2006), http://www.blackcommentator.com/201/201_cover_race_dems_fletcher_ed_bd.html.
~113 Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, translated by Talcot Parsons (New York: Routledge,  1999). See also, Chip Berlet, “Calvinism, Capitalism, Conversion, and Incarceration,” The Public Eye, Political Research Associates, (Winter 2004): pp. 8-15, http://www.publiceye.org/magazine/v18n3/berlet_calvinism.html.
~114 Interview with Doug Henwood, editor of Left Business Observer (LBO), based on comments made on LBO listserve, October 16, 2006.
~115 Margaret R. Somers and Fred Block, “From Poverty to Perversity: Ideas, Markets, and Institutions over 200 Years of Welfare Debate,” American Sociological Review 70(2), (April 2005): 260-287. See also, Alexander Hicks, “Comment on Somers and Block, Free-Market and Religious Fundamentalists versus Poor Relief,” American Sociological Review (71)3, (June 2006): 503-510; Margaret R. Somers and Fred Block, “Reply to Hicks: Poverty and Piety,” American Sociological Review 71(3), (June 2006): 511-513.
~117 Interview with S. Wojciech Sokolowski, based on comments made on LBO listserve, October 16, 2006.
~118 David Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999).
~119 Joel Mokyr, “Eurocentricity Triumphant,” review of Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, in The American Historical Review 104(4), (October 1999): 1241-1246.
~120 Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Touchstone, 1997).
~121 A. Etzioni, “The Real Threat: An Essay on Samuel Huntington,” Contemporary Sociology, 34(5), (2005): 477–85, quote from p. 485.
~122 Andrew Gumbel, “Something Rotten in the State of Florida,” Common Dreams, September 29, 2004, originally from The Independent, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0929-26.htm.
~123 Francis Schaeffer, A Christian Manifesto, revised edition (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1982); and a sermon by Schaeffer based on his book delivered in Florida, http://www.peopleforlife.org/francis.html; Francis A. Schaeffer and C. Everett Koop, Whatever Happened to the Human Race (Old Tappan, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1979). For secondary sources on Schaeffer, see Martin, With God on Our Side, pp. 156-160, 194-197, 238, 239, 321-323; Carol Mason, Killing for Life: The Apocalyptic Narrative of Pro-life Politics (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell U Press, 2002), pp. 108-118; Some Christian Right leaders who cite Schaeffer have moved far beyond anything he actually suggested.
~124 “Katherine Harris,” interview, Florida Baptist Witness, August 24, 2006, http://www.floridabaptistwitness.com/6298.article.
~125 Clarkson, “The Rise of Dominionism”; _____, 1997. Eternal Hostility: The Struggle between Theocracy and Democracy (Monroe, ME: Common Courage); Sara Diamond, “Dominion Theology: The Truth about the Christian Right’s Bid for Power,” originally in Z Magazine, 1995, http://www.publiceye.org/diamond/sd_domin.html; Berlet, “The Christian Right, Dominionism, and Theocracy.” A few websites reporting this story have confused generic dominionism (Schaeffer) with Christian Reconstructionism (R.J. Rushdoony). While Christian Reconstructionism is the most militant form of dominionism, it is a common error to imply that all dominionists are Reconstructionists or desire a full-blown totalitarian theocracy. On the Internet, many errors concerning definitions of dominionism can be traced to a seriously flawed article, “Dominionism: (A.K.A. Christian Reconstructionism, Dominion Theology, and Theonomy),” on the website of Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, http://www.religioustolerance.org/reconstr.htm.
~126 Arnold, Powers of Darkness: Diamond, Spiritual Warfare.
~127 Paul S. Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 1992); Robert C. Fuller, Naming the Antichrist: The History of an American Obsession (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
~128 Boyer, “John Darby Meets Saddam Hussein; Martin, “The Christian Right and American Foreign Policy”; Oldfield, “The Evangelical Roots of American Unilateralism; Michael Northcott, An Angel Directs The Storm. Apocalyptic Religion & American Empire (London: I.B. Tauris, 2004); Chip Berlet and Nikhil Aziz, “Culture, Religion, Apocalypse, and Middle East Foreign Policy,” IRC Right Web, Silver City, NM: Interhemispheric Resource Center, 2003, http://rightweb.irc-online.org/analysis/2003/0312apocalypse.php.
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