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1 Diamond, Roads, pp. 127-131, 179-180. On fusionism, see Himmelstein, To The Right, pp. 43-60. His discussion of the practical problems of uniting the three strands into a conservative movement is especially useful and perceptive.

2 Chip Berlet and Margaret Quigley, "Theocracy & White Supremacy: Behind the Culture War to Restore Traditional Values," in Berlet, Eyes Right, pp.15-43.

3 Laura Elizabeth Saponara, Ideology at Work: Deciphering the Appeal of New Right Discourse, Master of Arts Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 1997, p. 27.

4 See generally, Diamond, Spiritual Warfare.

5 William H. Marshner and Enrique T. Rueda, The Morality of Political Action: Biblical Foundations, (Washington, DC: the Free Congress Research and Education Foundation, 1983), pp. 35-48.

6 ISRP web page, URL: <>, 10/6/98.

7 Revelation, 20-22. Whether Christ returns at the beginning or the end of this thousand year period is disputed among pre-millennialists and post-millennialists. Fuller, Naming the Antichrist, pp. 6-7; Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism, pp. 40, 112-114; Diamond, Spiritual Warfare, pp. 130-138, 240; Michael Barkun, Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement, (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1994), p. 75-79, 104-105, 213.

8 Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More, pp. 80-112.

9 Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism, pp. 60, 147, 163; Martin, With God on Our Side, pp.14-15.

10 For general background, see Himmelstein, To The Right, Diamond, Roads to Dominion; Martin, With God on Our Side.

11 Fred Clarkson, Eternal Hostility, pp. 77-123.

12 Some analysts use the term "dominionism" solely to refer to forms of Reconstructionism, but others use it as I do here, in the broader sense of exclusionary Christian nationalism.

13 Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More, 254-290.

14 Joel Kovel, Red Hunting in the Promised Land: Anticommunism and the Making of America, (New York, Basic Books, 1994); Didi Herman, The Antigay Agenda: Orthodox Vision and the Christian Right, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), pp. 19-24, 35-44, 125-128, 170-172,

15 Johnson, Architects of Fear, pp. 169-173; Diamond, Spiritual Warfare, pp. 84-87, 233; Berlet and Quigley, "Theocracy & White Supremacy," in Berlet, Eyes Right!, pp. 32-33.

16 George M. Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism, pp. 109. See also: Diamond, Roads, pp. 246-248; William Martin, With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America, (New York: Broadway Books, 1996), pp. 194-198, 331-333, 344-347, ); Thompson, The End Of Time, pp. 310-312.

17 Stormer, None Dare Call It Treason; Stormer, None Dare Call It Treason...25 Years Later, paperback, (Flourissant, MO: Liberty Bell Press, 1992 {hardcover, 1990}).

18 Martin, With God on Our Side, pp. 194-197; Dallas A. Blanchard, The Anti-Abortion Movement and the Rise of the Religious Right, (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1994), p. 97. For examples of Christian antagonism toward secular humanism, see Francis A. Schaeffer, A Christian Manifesto, revised, (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1982 [1981]), pp. 117-130; Franky Schaeffer, A Time for Anger: The Myth of Neutrality, (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1982), pp. 15-25, 76-78; John W. Whitehead, The Stealing of America, (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1987), pp. 31-59; Tim LaHaye, The Battle for the Mind, (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1980), pp. 141-179.

19 Christian Anti-Communism Crusade, newsletter, April 1, 1998, p. 2.

20 David A. Noebel, Understanding the Times: The Story of the Biblical Christian, Marxist/Leninist and Secular Humanist Worldviews, (Manitou Springs, CO: Summit Ministries Press, 1992).

21 The author purchased curricular materials during a tour of Summit Ministries in 1997. On file at PRA.

22 Documentation, including correspondence between Welch, his aide, and a donor outlining the procedure, at PRA in file: "John Birch Society, Nonprofit Funding Conduits."

23 Pat Robertson, The New World Order, 1992, p. 36.

24 Ibid., pp. 261-62.

25 Michael Lind, "On Pat Robertson: His Defenders", The New York Review of Books, April 20, 1995, pp. 67-68; and accompanying article: Jacob Heilbrunn, "On Pat Robertson: His Anti-Semitic Sources", pp. 68-71.

26 See generally Camp, Selling Fear.

27 "Armageddon Books," Cliffside Publishing House, General Catalog, Fall/Winter 1996; <>, 11/13/98.

28 For an interesting discussion of this trend, see: Joel Schalit and Charlie Bertsch "Millennial Revelations: Religious Extremism and the Preparations For a Secular Apocalypse," Deolog, Feb. 1997, online, <>. A fascinating development is the post-rapture ministry, which creates evangelical outreach materials to be "left behind" after the authors are raptured up into heaven; see: Peter and Paul Lalonde's work including the popular video, "Apocalypse: Caught in the Eye of the Storm;" <>; and the website articles, "Oops, I Guess I Wasn't Ready," <>; and Kurt Seland, "The Post Rapture Survival Guide," <>.

29 Hal Lindsey, with C. C. Carlson, The Late Great Planet Earth, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970).

30 See the analysis of Lindsey in O'Leary, Arguing the Apocalypse, pp. 134-171.

31 Billy Graham, Approaching Hoofbeats: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, (Minneapolis, MN: Grason, 1983), pp. 222-224.

32 Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More, pp. 148-149, 327; referencing John F. Walvoord, Armageddon, Oil And The Middle East Crisis. What The Bible Says About The Future Of The Middle East And The End Of Western Civilization. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1990 {1974}).

33 Johnson, Architects of Fear, pp. 28-29; F. H. Knelman, Reagan, God and the Bomb, (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985); pp. 175-190; Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More, p. 162.

34 Grace Halsell, Prophecy and Politics: Militant Evangelists on the Road to Nuclear War, (Wesport, CT: Lawrence Hill, 1986). For a Christian manual on how to survive the nuclear Armageddon through bomb shelters, see: Arthur Robinson & Gary North, Fighting Chance: Ten Feet to Survival, (Cave Junction, OR: Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, 1986).

35 Ruth W. Mouly, The Religious Right and Israel: The Politics of Armageddon, (Chicago: Midwest Research [now Political Research Associates], 1987).

36 Lamy, Millennium Rage, p. 155. See also: Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More, pp. 327-331.

37 Sara Diamond, "Political Millennialism within the Evangelical Subculture," in Charles B. Strozier and Michael Flynn, The Year 2000: Essays on the End, (New York: NYU Press, 1997), p. 210.

38 Paul Boyer, lecture and seminar, Boston University, 11/12/98-11/13/98.

39 Fuller, Naming the Antichrist, p. 5. There are still some Protestant apocalyptics that see the Vatican as controlled by the Devil, see: "Conclusive Proof From The Bible That The Pope Is The Antichrist," <>.

40 "700 Club," 7/23/98 and 12/27/94, author's notes made while watching programs.

41 Cover story and series of articles on Y2K from a Christian perspective by Joel Belz, Roy Manard, Chris Stamper, and Lynn Vincent, in World (God's World Publications), 8/22/98. See also: "Y2K: Playing the Millennium Card," Culture Watch, The DataCenter, Sept. 1998, for a very useful roundup of the topic.

42 Author attended the workshop; speakers were Michael Hyatt, author of The Millennium Bug: How to Survive the Coming Chaos and the Day the World Shut Down, and prominent Lousiana Republican Dr. Billy McCormack of the University Baptist Church. Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, Larry Burkett, Jack Van Impe, and many other Christian evangelical leaders have added apocalyptic fuel to the Y2K furnace; see: Falwell's video, "Y2K: A Christian's Guide to the Millennium Bug." online, <>. See also: the site maintained by the Inspiration Network, <>.

43 See Gary North's web page, URL: <> (9/16/98). North's apocalyptic predictions about Y2K and the need for survivalist-style preparations echoes his previous stance on surviving nuclear war during the Reagan years: Robinson & North, Fighting Chance.

44 Dennis Behreandt, "Millennium Mayhem," The New American, 9/14/98, p. 14; for coverage of hard right fears about Y2K see "Y2Kaos," Intelligence Report., Southern Poverty Law Center, Fall 1998 (#92); and Berlet, Y2K and Millennial Pinball: How Y2K Shapes Survivalism in the US Christian Right, Patriot and Armed Militia Movements, and Far Right," paper, Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University, 1998.

45 Dave Hunt, Global Peace and the Rise of Antichrist; (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1990); Peter LaLonde, One World Under Antichrist: Globalism, Seducing Spirits and Secrets of the New World Order; (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1991); William T. James, ed., Foreshocks of Antichrist; (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1997);Arno Froese, How Democracy Will Elect the Antichrist: The Ultimate Denial of Freedom, Liberty and Justice According to the Bible, (West Colombia, SC: Olive Press, 1997).

46 Catholic Study Bible, commentary on Revelation, p. 399.

47 Vicki Frierson and Ruthanne Garlock, Christian Be Watchful: Hidden Dangers in the New Coalition of Feminism, Humanism, Socialism, Lesbianism, pamphlet, (Dallas: Texas Eagle Forum, 1978); on file at PRA.

48 Quinby, symposium presentation, "The Millennial Cusp: Western Cultures at 1000, 1500, 2000 and Beyond," sponsored by the Center for Millennial Studies, Boston, October 12, 1996. In the classic sci-fi film Five Million Years to Earth an ancient Martian space ship is unearthed at the aptly-named Hobbes End Underground station in London. When its passenger comes to life it appears as the Devil, complete with little horns. A women falls under its spell, and using superhuman powers supplied by the Devil, attempts to stop the male heroes planning to block the fiery apocalypse using logic and science.

49 "Vision 2000: Frequent Questions," Official PK Web Site, URL: <>, 7/17/98.

50 Ferrini Productions, "10.4.97 Promise Keepers," video, (Boston: Center for Millennial Studies, 1997); interviews by author at Promise Keepers Mall rally.

51 Steven L. Gardiner, "Promises to Keep: the Christian Right Men's Movement," Dignity Report, 3:4, Fall, 1996; Linda Kintz, Between Jesus and the Market: The Emotions that Matter in Right-Wing America, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), pp. 111-139; Connie Anderson, Visions of Involved Fatherhood: Pro-Feminists and "Promise Keepers," paper, ASA, Toronto, 1977, Family & Kinship Session (#113); ASA 1998 roundtable on Promise Keepers, with papers presented by Mary Stricker; Amy Schindler and Jennifer Carrol Lena; R. Lorraine Bernotsky and Joan M. Bernotsky, with discussion leader Jennifer Reich

52 Interview with Promise Keepers leader Randy Phillips on "Late Edition," CNN, 10/5/97; 10 am ET, from transcript, p. 9.

53 Lee Quinby, "Coercive Purity: The Dangerous Promise of Apocalyptic Masculinity," in Charles B. Strozier and Michael Flynn, The Year 2000: Essays on the End, (New York: NYU Press, 1997), pp. 154-156; note, however, that conservative evangelical women can find spheres of influence and agency within the constraints of submission, see Brenda E. Brasher, Fundamentalism and Female Power, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1998).

Christian Right demonization of gays and lesbians in the same style as anti-communism and anti-Semitism is described in Didi Herman, The Antigay Agenda. See also: Jean Hardisty "Constructing Homophobia," in Berlet, Eyes Right!, pp. 86-104; Arlene Stein, "When the Culture War Comes to Town: An Ethnography of Contested Sexuality in Rural Oregon," paper, ASA 98; and "Whose Memories? Whose Victimhood? Contests for the Holocaust Frame in Recent Social Movement Discourse," Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1998, pp. 519-540; Surina Khan, Calculated Compassion: How the Ex-Gay Movement Serves the Right's Attack on Democracy, (Somerville, MA: Political Research Associates, 1998).

54 Diamond, "Political Millennialism," in Strozier and Flynn, The Year 2000, pp., 206-210.

55 Richard K. Fenn, The End of Time: Religion, Ritual, and the Forging of the Soul, (Cleveland, Pilgrim Press, 1997), pp. 127-149.

56 Find charges and response at URL: <>.

57 Church on the Web, Video List, URL:

58 Patrick Matrisciana, ed., The Clinton Chronicles, fourth edition, (Hemet, CA: Jeremiah Books, 1994). See also: the related Clinton Chronicles video.

59 Texe Marrs, Big Sister Is Watching You: Hillary Clinton And The White House Feminists Who Now Control America--And Tell The President What To Do, (Austin, TX: Living Truth Publishers, 1993.)

60 An exceptional and detailed survey of Catholic apocalypticism can be found in Michael W. Cuneo, The Smoke of Satan, Conservative and Traditionalist Dissent in Contemporary American Catholicism, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). See also: Thompson, The End Of Time, pp.175-190. Useful overviews of key right-wing Catholic groups are in Steve Askin, A New Rite: Conservative Catholic Organizations and Their Allies, (Washington, DC: Catholics for Free Choice, 1994).

61 The Fatima Crusader, Summer 1992, p. 2.

62 Charles Martel, "Why Sr. Lucia Went Public," Fatima Family Messenger, April-June 1992, pp. 2-4, 44-48.

63 Cuneo, The Smoke of Satan, pp. 44-46, 172.

64 Ibid., pp. 154-177.

65 Victor Balaban, "The Virgin and the Millennium: Marian Sightings in the United States," lecture, Center for Millennial Studies and Boston University School of Theology, 1/20/98.

66 Charles Martel, "The Antichrist," The Fatima Crusader, Summer 1994, pp. 6-9.

67 Ibid. p. 9.

68 "Father Coughlin, a great apostle of social justice who courageously denounced the bankers' debt-money system," The Michael Journal, May-June 1995, p. 10; and various undated Michael Journal reprints handed out in the Boston area from 1995-1998, on file at PRA; see Denis Fahey's pamphlet, The Rulers of Russia, reprinted in 1940 by Coughlin's Social Justice Publishing, in which Fahey claims a "Judaeo-Bolshevist" influence over both capitalism and communism.

69 William T. Still, New World Order, (Lafayette, LA: Huntington House, 1990).

70 Ibid., Introduction.

71 Ibid., back cover.

72 Ibid., pp. 140-141, 148-149.

73 Ibid., back cover.

74 Cheri Seymour, Committee of the States: Inside the Radical Right, (Mariposa, CA: Camden Place Communications, 1991).

75 James Corcoran, Bitter Harvest: The Birth of Paramilitary Terrorism in the Heartland, (New York: Viking Penguin, 1995 [1990]).

76 Mark Rupert, Globalization and the Reconstruction of Common Sense in the US, in S. Gill and J. Mittelman, eds., Innovation and Transformation in International Studies, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997). See also Rupert's marvelous Web page, "A Virtual Guided Tour of Far Right Anti-Globalist Ideology," URL: <> An important study of socio-economic factors is Deborah Kaplan, "Republic of Rage: A Look Inside the Patriot Movement," paper, ASA 98.

77 Kenneth S. Stern, A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996); Lamy, Millennium Rage.

78 Chip Berlet & Matthew N. Lyons, "Militia Nation," The Progressive, June 1995, pp. 22-25; Scott McLemee, "Public Enemy," In These Times, May 15, 1995, pp. 14-19; Chip Berlet, "The Violence of Right-Wing Populism," Peace Review, 7:3/4 (1995: Journals Oxford, Ltd.), 283-288.

79 Jason Vest, "The Spooky World of Linda Thompson," Washington Post, May 11, 1995, pp. D1, D8-D9.

80 Not all survivalists are part of white supremacist or anti-Semitic movements, but many are.

81 Jess Walter, Every Knee Shall Bow: The Truth and Tragedy of Ruby Ridge and the Randy Weaver Family, (New York: Regan Books, 1995), pp. 64-87.

82 Robert K. Spear, Surviving Global Slavery: Living Under the New World Order, (Leavenworth, KS: Universal Force Dynamics, 1992); Spear, Creating Covenant Communities, (Leavenworth, KS: Universal Force Dynamics, 1993).

83 James D. Tabor and Eugene V. Gallagher, Why Waco? Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); Dick J. Reavis, The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995); Kenneth Samples, Erwin de Castro, Richard Abanes, & Robert Lyle, Prophets of the Apocalypse: David Koresh & Other American Messiahs, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1994).

84 Quinby, Anti-Apocalypse, pp. 155-162; ); Thompson, The End Of Time, pp. 278-321; Mark S. Hamm, Apocalypse in Oklahoma: Waco and Ruby Ridge Revenged, (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1997);

85 Devin Burghart and Robert Crawford, Guns and Gavels: Common Law Courts, Militias & White Supremacy, (Portland, OR: Coalition for Human Dignity, 1996).

86 Ted Daniels, "Another Standoff: The Montana Freeman," Millennial Prophecy Report, April 1996, p. 1-4; Mark Pitcavage, "Every Man a King: The Rise and Fall of the Montana Freemen, The Militia Watchdog website, May 1996.

87 Letter from JBS American Opinion Book Services, in promotional catalog of anti-UN materials, August 1998, on file at PRA.

88 Robert Unruh, Authorities Speculate Fugitives May Have Slipped Away-Again," Associated Press, 6/5/98; "Authorities Tracking Two People They Believe Could Be Fugitives," Associated Press, 7/10/98; David Foster, "Vast Manhunt Comes up Empty, Associated Press, 8/8/98; Greg Burton, "Cop Killing: A Meeting of Radicalism, Religion," Salt Lake City Tribune, June 21, 1998, online, <>.

89 Mary Rupert, "The Patriot Movement and the Roots of Fascism," in Susan Allen Nan, et. al. eds., Windows to Conflict Analysis and Resolution: Framing our Field, (Fairfax, VA: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, 1997), p. 96.

90 James A. Aho, The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism, (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1990). Stern, in footnote 4 of "Militias and the Religious Right," puts it this way:

    Some commentators do not distinguish between Christian Identity and Christian Patriotism because, on the American far right, most who are Identity adherents are also Christian Patriots.

    But it is important to distinguish the two. Identity comes from a 19th century belief called "British Israelism." One can be an Identity adherent in Australia, Canada, et cetera. Christian Patriots, on the other hand, only exist in America, and one can be a Christian Patriot without subscribing to Identity religion. For example, James Nichols, brother of accused Oklahoma City-bomber Terry Nichols, is a Christian Patriot who flirted with, but was talked out of, Identity theology by a Methodist friend.

91 Patrick Minges, "Apocalypse Now! The Realized Eschatology of the `Christian Identity' Movement, paper, American Academy of Religion Conference, 1994; Susan DeCamp, "Locking the Doors to the Kingdom: An Examination of Religion in Extremist Organizing and Public Policy," in Eric Ward, ed., American Armageddon: Religion, Revolution and the Right, (Seattle, Northwest Coalition Against Malicious Harassment [Peanut Butter Publishing], 1998).

92 Barkun, Religion and the Racist Right, pp. 47-49, 60-70, 106-107, 116-118, 205.

93 Christian Identity is inherently a racialized religious philosophy, but the degree of white supremacy and anti-Semitism can vary depending on the views of each autonomous local group. Here we use Identity to refer to the highly bigoted neonazi form of Christian Identity. See Leonard Zeskind, The "Christian Identity" Movement, (Atlanta, GA: Center for Democratic Renewal/Division of Church and Society, National Council of Churches, 1987). For early examples of how British Israelism came to America, see: J. H. Allen, Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, fifteenth edition, (Haverhill, MA: Destiny Publishers, 1917 {1902}); and W. G. Mackendrick (The Roadbuilder), The Destiny of Britain and America, new revised edition, (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1922).

94 Minges, "Apocalypse Now!"

95 All major Christian religious institutions denounce Christian Identity.

96 Nord Davis, Jr., Desert Shield and the New World Order, Northpoint Tactical Teams, 1990, appearing as the September-October 1990 issue of On Target, the Northpoint Team Report.

97 The Militia News, (Afton, TN), Christian Civil Liberties Association, 1994, p.1.

98 Ibid., p. 2.

99 Ibid., p. 3.

100 Thomas Halpern and Brian Levin, The Limits of Dissent: The Constitutional Status of Armed Civilian Militias, (Amherst, MA: Aletheia Press, 1996), pp. 2-4, 42-52; Stern, A Force Upon the Plain, pp. 107-118, 135-138; Richard Abanes, American Militias: Rebellion, Racism & Religion, (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996), pp. 22, 43-71.

101 Author's review of documents admitted into evidence in the Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols trials. The author was subpoenaed and questioned as an expert by the defense in the Nichol's trial but never called to testify. McVeigh adopted neonazi beliefs while Terry Nichols, on the other hand, appears more of a generic constitutionalist. See also Hamm, Apocalypse in Oklahoma, and Joel Dyer, Harvest of Rage: Why Oklahoma City is Only the Beginning, revised, (New York: Westview, 1998 [1997]).

102 Andrew Macdonald, [pseudonym of William Pierce] The Turner Diaries, (Washington, DC: National Alliance Books, 1978).

103 O'Leary, Arguing the Apocalypse; pp. 4-14, 178-179, 218-224; Richard Landes, working papers for the Center for Millennial Studies, on file at PRA.

104 Fuller, Naming the Antichrist, pp. 9-10, 191-200.

105 Lamy, Millennium Rage, p. 265; Thompson, in The End Of Time, also ties End Times belief to periods of societal stress, pp. 71-72, 178.

106 Peter Worsley, The Trumpet Shall Sound: A Study of "Cargo" Cults in Melanesia, second, augmented, edition, (New York: Schocken Books, 1968, pp. xxxix-xliii, 225-243.

107 Kaplan, Radical Religion in America, p. 171.

108 Fuller, Naming the Antichrist, p.168.

109 Antony C. Sutton & Patrick M. Wood, Trilaterals Over Washington, (Scottsdale, AZ: The August Corporation, 1979), find graphic in back coupon section.

110 C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite, New York: Oxford University Press, 1956. G. William Domhoff, The Powers That Be: Processes of Ruling Class Domination in America, (New York: Vintage Books, 1979, [1978]); Domhoff, Who Rules America Now: A View for the `80's, (New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1986, [1983]); Holly Sklar, ed., Trilateralism: The Trilateral Commission and Elite Planning for World Management, (Boston: South End Press, 1980); Sklar, Reagan, Trilateralism and the Neoliberals: Containment and Intervention in the 1980s, (Pamphlet No. 4), (Boston: South End Press,1986); Sklar, Chaos or Community?

111 Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, (Seal Beach, CA: `76 Press, 1976), pp. 170-171.

112 Author's conversations with Domhoff and Sklar at academic conference panels on power structure research. One presumes Mills would have objected as well.

113 Interview with Landes, 1998.

114 O'Leary, Arguing the Apocalypse; pp. 221-222.

115 Leslie Jorgenson, a freelance reporter in Colorado first reported Duran's tie to militia-oriented talk radio. See her article "AM Armies" in the March/April 1995 issue of Extra! where she discusses the Chuck Baker program in detail. William E. Clayton, Jr., "Colorado Man Charged with Trying to Kill Clinton," Houston Chronicle, 11/18/94, p. 1.

116 Chip Berlet, "Armed and Dangerous," The Boston Globe, 1/6/95, Op-Ed, p. 23. Chip Berlet, "Clinic Violence, The Religious Right, Scapegoating, Armed Militias, & the Freemason Conspiracy," The Body Politic, in two parts, 5:2 February 1995, and 5:3, March 1995.

117 The New American is published by the John Birch Society based in Appleton, WI. The Fatima Crusader is published by the National Committee for the National Pilgrim Virgin of Canada, and distributed in the US by the Servants of Jesus and Mary Fatima Center in Constable, New York.

118 Charles E. Rice, "The Death Penalty Dilemma," New American, April 4, 1994, p. 24. Rice, in another publication, suggests considering a Biblical passage interpreted by some as sanctioning death for homosexuality.

119 The author was subpoenaed and questioned as an expert by the defense in the Salvi trial but never called to testify. The discussion is based on conversations with professionals with a direct knowledge of Salvi's mental health status.

120 Jacob Weisberg, "Playing with Fire," New York magazine, May 8, 1995, pp. 30-35.

121 Fenn, The End of Time, p. 224.

122 Ibid., pp. 196-227; for a discussion of how this dynamic can enforce oppressive race and gender hierarchies, see Abby L. Ferber, White Man Falling: Race, Gender, and White Supremacy, (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998).

123 Discussions with Lauren Langman and Carl Boggs regarding various papers they presented at the American Sociological Association and International Sociological Association meetings in 1997 and 1998.

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