A Critique of the FBI and ADL reports on potential apocalyptic violence
and the year 2000
by Chip Berlet
Political Research Associates
Both the FBI and ADL reports about the potential for apocalyptic violence,
being somewhat simplistic and coming out so close to the year 2000, have
had the unintended outcome of adding to the near-hysteria of the far right,
patriot and armed militia groups, and militant Christian Right movements.
These reports needed more detail and should have been issued much earlier
so there could have been a public discussion of the issues and time for
those who are fired up by apocalyptic millennialism to cool down from their
initial reading of the reports.
While these reports focus on racism and antisemitism, gender gets short
Among the "signs of the End Times" prophesied in the Bible's book of
Revelation is widespread sinful sexuality. Thus in some narratives, if
the year 2000 is the dawn of the new millennium, it is time to clean
up society, especially the sinful sexuality represented by the Whore
of Babylon, the women dressed in Red (scarlet, actually). In modern terms,
this means the targets include feminists, abortion providers, and gay
men and lesbians (and bisexual and transgender if they can even imagine
it). Certainly a time for heightened security. Remember, John Salvi thought
it was the End Times, and that he was on a mission from God to wake up
the Catholic Church. He came out of a small apocalyptic Marianist subculture
This is in addition to government targets being openly discussed online
by members of the patriot and armed militia movement; and people of color
and Jews who are targets of apocalyptic far right ideologies such as
Christian Identity and the Church of the Creator. Suspected terrorist
Eric Rudolph appears to have targeted a broader range of groups than
mentioned in these reports. He seems to have been motivated by Christian
Identity, a theology in which the End Times battle is a race war for
White control--but it is also an ideology where anything that challenges
heterosexual patriarchy is a target. This is true for a number of other
far right ideologies.
The ADL report lumps together under the rubric of "extremists" a wide
range of political and religious groups. While it tries to make some
distinction about Christian apocalyptic thought, it is easy to read the
report as implying that evangelical Christians who believe in a conspiracy
of world leaders during the End Times are potential terrorists. This
belief is widespread among conservative Christian evangelicals, and it
is unlikely that 20-40 million of our fellow citizens are potential terrorists.
The discussion of cults represents a narrow controversial view challenged
by scholars of new religious movements.
The ADL report lacks any footnotes or references, and in an academic
setting would be considered plagiarism of work by Norman Cohn, Robert
Fuller, Paul Boyer, Phillip Lamy, Damian Thompson, the Southern Poverty
Law Center, and others, including me. The ADL needs to begin footnoting
its major reports. Its continued uncritical reliance on the centrist/extremist
theories of analysts such as Lipset and Bell ignores the past 30 years
of social science.
As Christian Smith observes:
"The 1970s saw a major break in the social-movement literature
with earlier theories--e.g., mass society, collective behavior, status
discontent, and relative-deprivation theories--that emphasized the irrational
and emotional nature of social movements....There was at the time a decisive
pendulum-swing away from these “classical” theories toward the view of social
movements as rational, strategically calculating, politically instrumental
The FBI report has a poorly written discussion of Christian apocalyptic
thought, basing the discussion on Catholic interpretations, which is absurd
since the Catholic Church officially discourages apocalyptic thought. It
is Protestant evangelical interpretations of prophecy and their secular
offspring that influence the dynamic in the US. There are a few references
in the FBI report, but they are limited and inadequate for a full discussion
of the complex issues.
For the FBI to name a report on their plans for countering apocalyptic
violence "Project Megiddo" is a serious error. Megiddo is the plain in
the Middle East where the battle of Armageddon is fought between the
forces of Christ and the Satanic forces of the Antichrist, according
to the Book of Revelation in the Christian Bible. Since the FBI is characterized
as one of the forces of the Antichrist in some hard right rhetoric, the
outcome was entirely predictable: the right sees it as a threat to impose
Some conservative groups have already complained about these reports
and the impressions they leave. Some of these complaints are justified.
There has even been discussion of Congressional hearings.
There is some good news revealed in the text of both reports. The ADL
report is actually quite good when it is discussing far right groups
such as Christian Identity and Church of the Creator. The FBI report
shows that there is a new understanding of the complexity of some movements
and the role of apocalyptic thinking.
These gains were overshadowed by the press coverage of both reports,
which tended to be simplistic. The way the FBI report leaked to the press
before its official release resulted in hurriedly put together articles
that conflated groups and issues. Because of superficial reporting, the
public could easily lump together "hate groups," militias, terrorists,
and devout Christians.
The story here is "why so late?" Why was there no public discussion
these issues last year when it would have been much more useful? How are
law enforcement officials supposed to get up to speed in one month, when
apocalyptic violence tied to millennial expectation has been happening
for years? There is a steep learning curve about apocalyptic millennialism.
All of this helps create a hysterical atmosphere where law enforcement is
likely to overreact.
Political Research Associates
For a more detailed discussion, see:
Y2K Paranoia: Extremists Confront the Millennium"
Project Megiddo" in Acrobat PDF format